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antibiotics

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12361. The value of routine antibiotic prophylaxis in mandibular third molar surgery: acute-phase protein levels as indicators of infection. (Abstract)

The value of routine antibiotic prophylaxis in mandibular third molar surgery: acute-phase protein levels as indicators of infection. Postoperative infections in the oral region are usually caused by anaerobic bacteria. While some authors claim that routine antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary after third molar surgery, others do not recommend this practice. The major subject of controversy is what constitutes postoperative infection. Previous studies that have examined the benefit of routine (...) antibiotic prophylaxis have used several clinical symptoms (pain, swelling, and trismus) as indicators of infection; however, these clinical symptoms may be vague and unreliable, and cannot be evaluated scientifically. As a result, their use has only sparked more debate in this area of research. The present study assessed the value of routine antibiotic prophylaxis in impacted mandibular third molar surgery using acute-phase protein levels as potential indicators of early and late postoperative infection

2001 Journal of oral science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12362. [Antibiotic resistance of E coli isolated from healthy persons]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic resistance of E coli isolated from healthy persons]. The aim of the study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli isolates in stools from healthy Danes.Sixty-nine persons from Copenhagen participated in the study. Three faecal samples from each participant were examined by culture for each of three periods. E. coli was isolated selectively and tested for sensitivity against sulfamethizole, trimethoprim, the combination of sulfamethizole and trimethoprim, ampicillin (...) %) of the strains from 24 persons (34.8%) were resistant to nitrofurantoin, two (1.1%) strains from two persons (2.9%) were resistant to cefuroxime, whereas none of the strains was resistant to mecillinam and ciprofloxacin.The high prevalence of resistance to sulfamethizole, ampicillin, trimethoprim, and nitrofurantoin is surprising, as none of the persons had been treated with antibiotics, but it may reflect the widespread use of antibiotics in animals for food production. The consequences of the results

2001 Ugeskrift for laeger Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12363. Antibiotic treatment to prevent urinary tract infections after urodynamic evaluation. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment to prevent urinary tract infections after urodynamic evaluation. The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of cotrimoxazole administration after urodynamic testing to prevent urinary tract infections. In a single-blind prospective randomized study 94 women who attended for urodynamic evaluation were included. After multichannel urodynamic testing, including two catheterizations, the women received a single dose of cotrimoxazole or placebo. A clean-catch urine

2001 International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12364. Effect of a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine on the occurrence of respiratory infections and antibiotic use in day-care center attendees. (Abstract)

Effect of a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine on the occurrence of respiratory infections and antibiotic use in day-care center attendees. Incidence and severity of respiratory infections are increased in day-care center attendees. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important contributor to these infections.To examine whether the use of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine could reduce the occurrence of respiratory infections and the ensuing antibiotic drug use in the day care.In this double blind (...) , randomized, controlled study performed in 8 day-care centers located in Beer-Sheva, Israel, 264 toddlers ages 12 to 35 months at enrollment were randomized to receive either a 9-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (conjugated to CRM197) or a control vaccine [conjugate meningococcus C vaccine (conjugated to CRM197)] and were followed for an average of 22 months. The main outcome measures were respiratory morbidity and antibiotic use.An overall reduction of 7% in child months with > or = 1 reported

2001 The Pediatric infectious disease journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12365. [Community-acquired pneumonia: influence of the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy on hospital stay and the cost-benefit ratio]. (Abstract)

[Community-acquired pneumonia: influence of the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy on hospital stay and the cost-benefit ratio]. Intravenous antibiotic therapy (IVAT) is usually prescribed for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Studies have associated prolonged IVAT with longer hospital stays and higher costs. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence the expense generated by and mean stay of patients hospitalized for pneumonia

2001 Archivos de bronconeumologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12366. Early antibiotic treatment (prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin. (Abstract)

Early antibiotic treatment (prophylaxis) of septic complications in severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study comparing two regimens with imipenem-cilastatin. We compared two imipenem regimens for prevention of septic complications in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).Prospective, randomized open clinical trial involving intensive care units of 14 Spanish Hospitals.92 patients with ANP.Imipenem/cilastatin was administered at 500 (...) mg four times daily starting at the time of diagnosis of ANP, within the first 96 h from the onset of symptoms. Patients were randomized to receive antibiotic prophylaxis either for 14 days (group 1) or at least for 14 days and as long as major systemic complications of the disease persisted (group 2).Antibiotic was maintained in group 2 for 19.7+/-10.9 days. The incidence of infected pancreatic necrosis, pancreatic abscess, and extrapancreatic infections was 11%, 17%, and 28% in group 1 and 17.4

2003 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12367. Antibiotic treatment of small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with Crohn's disease. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment of small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with Crohn's disease. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth is common in Crohn's disease but its treatment is not clearly defined. Metronidazole and ciprofloxacin are effective antibiotics in active Crohn's disease.To investigate the efficacy of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of bacterial overgrowth in patients with Crohn's disease.We performed the lactulose breath test in 145 consecutive patients affected (...) patients treated by metronidazole and in all 14 patients treated by ciprofloxacin (P = ns). In both groups antibiotic treatment induced an improvement of intestinal symptoms: bloating (Group A 85% and Group B 83%), stool softness (44% and 50%), and abdominal pain (50% and 43%).Small bowel bacterial overgrowth is a frequent condition in Crohn's disease which can be effectively treated by metronidazole or ciprofloxacin.

2003 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12368. Antibiotic prophylaxis in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis: a randomized controlled trial. To evaluate whether antistaphylococcal prophylaxis in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) would suppress the acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus and delay the onset of the manifestations of bronchopulmonary disease.A 7-year, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of continuous antistaphylococcal therapy. Otherwise healthy children <2 years of age with CF were

2002 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12369. Short-term intravenous antibiotic treatment of acute hematogenous bone and joint infection in children: a prospective randomized trial. (Abstract)

Short-term intravenous antibiotic treatment of acute hematogenous bone and joint infection in children: a prospective randomized trial. Thirty-three cases of acute hematogenous bone or joint infection in children were randomly treated with short-term (7 days for joint infection, 10 days for bone infection) or long-term (14 days and 21 days, respectively) intravenous antibiotics after surgical drainage. The treatment outcome was measured through a detailed scoring system that included (...) the ability to eradicate infection, the functional status of the limb, and the radiographic appearance of the bone and joint. The results were similar in both groups, showing the added benefit of a shorter hospital stay for children with blood-borne musculoskeletal infection. The use of this scoring system in choosing the route of antibiotic administration is recommended.

2002 Journal of pediatric orthopedics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12370. Activity of antibacterial impregnated central venous catheters against Klebsiella pneumoniae. (Abstract)

Activity of antibacterial impregnated central venous catheters against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotically coated or impregnated catheters are effective in eliminating gram-positive bacteria from their surfaces. However, their activity against gram-negative bacteria is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the adherence, persistence and colonization of Klebsiella pneumoniae on catheter surfaces and also to assess bacteriostatic and bactericidal levels.Randomized (...) , which were bacteriostatic to K. pneumoniae. No antibacterial activity was detected in the effluents from catheter SP+C.SSC and SP+C catheters are effective in eliminating K. pneumoniae from their surfaces for at least 21 days. M+R catheters are less effective in eliminating bacterial adherence and colonization may be due to their bacteriostatic property.

2002 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12371. Post-ERCP pancreatitis: reduction by routine antibiotics. (Abstract)

Post-ERCP pancreatitis: reduction by routine antibiotics. Cholangitis and pancreatitis are severe complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Antibiotics have been considered important in preventing cholangitis, especially in those with jaundice. Some have suggested that bacteria may play a role in the induction of post-ERCP pancreatitis. It is not clear, however, whether the incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis could be reduced by antibiotic prophylaxis (...) , as is the case with septic complications. In this prospective study, a total of 321 consecutive patients were randomized to the following two groups: (1) a prophylaxis group (n = 161) that was given 2 g of cephtazidime intravenously 30 minutes before ERCP, and (2) a control group (n = 160) that received no antibiotics. All patients admitted to the hospital for ERCP who had not taken any antibiotics during the preceding week were included. Patients who were allergic to cephalosporins, patients with immune

2002 Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12372. Do delayed prescriptions reduce the use of antibiotics for the common cold? A single-blind controlled trial. (Abstract)

Do delayed prescriptions reduce the use of antibiotics for the common cold? A single-blind controlled trial. To test the use of a delayed prescription compared with instructions to take antibiotics immediately in patients presenting to family physicians with upper respiratory tract infections (common colds).Randomized controlled single-blind study.Subjects were 129 patients presenting with the common cold who requested antibiotics or whose physicians thought they wanted them. All patients were (...) in a family practice in Auckland, New Zealand, consisting of 15 physicians (9 male, 6 female) who had completed medical school between 1973 and 1992.Outcomes were antibiotic use (taking at least 1 dose of the antibiotic), symptom scores, and responses to the satisfaction questions asked at the end of the study.Patients in the delayed-prescription group were less likely to use antibiotics (48%, 95% CI, 35%-60%) than were those instructed to take antibiotics immediately (89%, 95% CI, 76%-94%). Daily body

2002 Journal of Family Practice Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12373. Effect on antibiotic prescribing of repeated clinical prompts to use a sore throat score: lessons from a failed community intervention study. (Abstract)

Effect on antibiotic prescribing of repeated clinical prompts to use a sore throat score: lessons from a failed community intervention study. Infections with group A streptococcus (GAS) occur in 10% to 20% of patients with sore throats, whereas antibiotics are prescribed 50% of the time. Clinical scoring rules can more accurately predict the likelihood of GAS infection, but whether family physicians will adopt such approaches is unclear. This study sought to determine whether repeated clinical (...) prompts to use a scoring approach could help family physicians lower antibiotic use in patients with a sore throat.Randomized trial in which physicians were assigned to use either (1) chart stickers that prompted them to calculate a score based on clinical findings and provided management recommendations linked to score totals or (2) a clinical checklist.Ninety-seven family physicians in Ontario, Canada, assessed 621 children and adults with sore throat and obtained a throat swab for culture.(1

2002 Journal of Family Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12374. Role of antibiotic prophylaxis for wound infection in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): result of a prospective double-blind randomized trial. (Abstract)

Role of antibiotic prophylaxis for wound infection in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG): result of a prospective double-blind randomized trial. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was carried out to determine the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of wound infection in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) procedures. The wound was evaluated using ASEPSIS method and categorized as disturbance of healing, minor or major wound infection on the 7th day

2002 The Journal of hospital infection Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12375. The antibiotic treatment trial of Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses: issues, design, screening, and baseline characteristics. (Abstract)

The antibiotic treatment trial of Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses: issues, design, screening, and baseline characteristics. Many veterans who were deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War developed multiple unexplained symptoms such as pain, fatigue, and neurocognitive problems. This constellation of symptoms has been termed Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses (GWVI). Although there is no proven explanation for the cause of GWVI, one fairly widespread explanation is systemic Mycoplasma (...) fermentans infection. The Antibiotic Treatment Trial of GWVI is a randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine whether a 1-year course of doxycycline treatment in deployed Gulf War veterans with GWVI and testing as Mycoplasma species positive will improve their overall functional status as measured by the Physical Component Summary of the SF-36V questionnaire. The study of a multisymptom illness such as GWVI is complicated by the nonspecific nature of the illness, the unknown etiology, and the lack

2002 Controlled clinical trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12376. Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing reduce antibiotic use and accelerate pathogen-directed antibiotic use. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing reduce antibiotic use and accelerate pathogen-directed antibiotic use. Rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility tests can lead to earlier microbiological diagnosis and pathogen-directed, appropriate therapy. We studied whether accelerated diagnostics affected antibiotic use and patient outcomes.A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed over a 2-year period. Inpatients were selected on the basis of a positive (...) testing, the rapid arm was 22 h faster than the control arm, and for identification, it was 13 h faster (P < 0.0001). In the rapid arm, antibiotic use was 6 defined daily doses lower per patient than in the control arm (P = 0.012). Whereas antibiotics were switched more in the rapid group on the day of randomization (P = 0.006), in the control group they were switched more on day two (P = 0.02). Mortality rates did not differ significantly between the two groups (17.6% versus 15.2%).While rapid

2008 The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12377. [Parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis or oral antimicrobial bowel preparation for colorectal surgery (author's transl)]. (Abstract)

[Parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis or oral antimicrobial bowel preparation for colorectal surgery (author's transl)]. A prospective randomized trial was designed to establish whether parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis was as effective as oral antimicrobial bowel preparation in preventing sepsis after colorectal surgery. Patients scheduled for elective resection of colorectal cancer received metronidazole and kanamycin either orally in the preoperative phase or parenterally as a short-term (...) at the Birmingham General Hospital using the same protocol, in which postoperative sepsis was significantly more common in the group of patients having oral bowel preparation. This difference was most probably due to an overgrowth of kanamycin-resistant coliforms during the period of oral antibiotic preparation. The presence of resistant organisms did not, however, result in failure of systemic prophylaxis. The authors conclude that short-term parenteral application is the safer method of antibiotic prophylaxis

1981 Langenbecks Archiv für Chirurgie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12378. Vancomycin added to empirical combination antibiotic therapy for fever in granulocytopenic cancer patients. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group and the National Cancer In (Abstract)

Vancomycin added to empirical combination antibiotic therapy for fever in granulocytopenic cancer patients. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group and the National Cancer In A total of 747 febrile granulocytopenic patients with cancer were randomized to receive ceftazidime plus amikacin (CA) with or without vancomycin (V) as initial empirical therapy. Single gram-positive bacteremias responded in 29 (43%) of 68 (...) ) or in the duration of fever (P = .22, P = .93, respectively). Moreover, no patient with gram-positive bacteremia died during the first 3 days of true empirical therapy. Antibiotic-associated nephrotoxicity was more frequent in patients treated with vancomycin (6% vs. 2%, P = .02). These results do not support the empirical addition of vancomycin to initial antibiotic therapy in cancer patients with fever and granulocytopenia.

1991 The Journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12379. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-iodine versus topical antibiotics in cataract surgery. (Abstract)

Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-iodine versus topical antibiotics in cataract surgery. Comparative evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-iodine versus topical broad-spectrum antibiotics for disinfecting the eye and surrounding area to prevent postoperative complications was carried out on 100 patients. PVP-iodine proved superior antiseptic for pre-operative preparation of eyes before cataract surgery. It was cheaper, caused minimal side-effects

1998 Journal of the Indian Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12380. Detection of antimicrobial activity in urine for epidemiologic studies of antibiotic use. (Abstract)

Detection of antimicrobial activity in urine for epidemiologic studies of antibiotic use. Antibiotic resistance is the inevitable consequence of the selective pressure of antimicrobial drug use and the adaptive plasticity of the microorganisms. Excessive and irrational use of antimicrobial drugs is a problem in all countries. It is particularly troublesome in developing countries where there is a heavy burden of infectious diseases. This study was designed to determine whether detection (...) of antimicrobial activity in the urine might be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of the interaction between antibiotic use and resistance in developing countries. A laboratory marker is necessary because the history of antimicrobial drug use may be unreliable. Serial specimens or spontaneously voided urine were obtained from healthy volunteers given a single oral dose of commonly used antimicrobial drugs. Urine was also obtained from hospitalized patients the morning after the last dose

1999 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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