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antibiotics

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12321. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in limited gynecological surgeries for pregnancy termination]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic prophylaxis in limited gynecological surgeries for pregnancy termination]. The authors attempted with this trial to confirm the necessity of periabortal antibiotic prophylaxis after spontaneous and induced abortion. The trial included 172 patients with abortion; 53 of them with induced abortion and 119 with spontaneous abortion. The term of gestation was between 5 and 22 week. Three therapeutic groups were compared to a control no-treatment group. The first group was given (...) Ampicillin orally 4 x 500 mg for 5 consecutive days. The second group was administered a combination of Ampicillin orally 4 x 500 mg plus Gentamycin 2 x 80 mg i.m. for 3 to 5 days postoperatively. The third group was given 3 x 2 g i.v. Cefazolin intraoperatively and 24 hours following the manipulation. The trial aimed at establishing the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the antibiotic prophylaxis. The results tend to prove the perioperative prophylaxis with Cefazolin is preferable since it is most

2003 Akusherstvo i ginekologii͡a Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12322. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: from empiricism to evidence. Review of the problem and proposal of a randomized trial of the Lap Group Roma]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: from empiricism to evidence. Review of the problem and proposal of a randomized trial of the Lap Group Roma]. More than 10 years after its appearance in clinical practice, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can now be considered the standard operation for gallstone disease. However, some aspects of this operation are still debated. The need to perform routine antibiotic prophylaxis in order to reduce the incidence of infectious complications

2003 Chirurgia italiana Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12323. Plaque antibacterial levels following controlled food intake and use of a toothpaste containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan. (Abstract)

Plaque antibacterial levels following controlled food intake and use of a toothpaste containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan. To measure the levels of zinc and Triclosan present in plaque 12 hours post-brushing and following two weeks home use of a toothpaste formulation containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan. To measure the levels of zinc and Triclosan in plaque following two weeks home use of the test toothpaste formulation together with a further morning's brushing and a day (...) microg/g and 4.1 microg/g respectively. These levels of agents were found to reduce pH drop in vitro.Regular use of a toothpaste containing 2% zinc citrate and 0.3% Triclosan can lead to a build-up of antibacterial agents in plaque that continue to work even after controlled food intake.

2003 International dental journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12324. [Evaluation of microorganisms ability to beta-lactamase production in exacerbation of chronic sinusitis treated with beta-lactam antibiotics]. (Abstract)

[Evaluation of microorganisms ability to beta-lactamase production in exacerbation of chronic sinusitis treated with beta-lactam antibiotics]. In our study the ability of the isolated microorganisms to produce beta-lactamase was determined. These microorganisms were isolated from sinus punctures of 115 patients before (evaluation I) and after the treatment finished (evaluation III). During first evaluation 93 microorganisms with potential ability to beta-lactamase production were isolated. 24

2003 Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12325. [Antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with acute hemorrhage due to portal hypertension--personal experience]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with acute hemorrhage due to portal hypertension--personal experience]. Acute bleeding from upper part of gastrointestinal tract is a frequent and serious complication affecting 20 to 60% of patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. It is associated with a high death rate of 30 to 50% and a frequent relapse of bleeding occurs in up to 40% of these patients. The most recent meta-analyses have shown that bacterial infection is an independent factor (...) in the failure of blood hemostasis and significantly influenced mortality in these patients. The authors investigated 25 patients with acute bleeding from the upper part of gastrointestinal tract due to portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. Irrespective of the proved bacterial infection the patients were given antibiotic prophylaxis. In 13 patients the authors administered norfloxacin orally and 12 patients were treated intravenously with ampicilin/sulbactam. The prophylaxis of the bleeding

2003 Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12326. Cefazolin versus cefazolin plus metronidazole for antibiotic prophylaxis at cesarean section. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cefazolin versus cefazolin plus metronidazole for antibiotic prophylaxis at cesarean section. Although prophylactic antibiotic medications have been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative infectious morbidity after cesarean delivery, the most effective regimens have not been established. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy and costs of prophylaxis with cefazolin alone with cefazolin plus metronidazole.Women undergoing cesarean delivery were randomized (...) antibiotic prophylaxis cost per person was less with cefazolin and metronidazole than with cefazolin alone (9.12 dollars versus 26.73 dollars).Antibiotic prophylaxis with metronidazole and cefazolin results in fewer postoperative infections, decreased duration of hospitalization, and lower medication cost than cefazolin alone.

2003 Southern medical journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12327. [Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with Lactobacillus sporogens and fructo-oligosaccharides in children. A multicentric double-blind vs placebo study]. (Abstract)

[Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with Lactobacillus sporogens and fructo-oligosaccharides in children. A multicentric double-blind vs placebo study]. The aim of this paper is to determine the efficacy of a fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)-Lactobacillus sporogenes preparation in the prevention of diarrhea due to antibiotics in childhood.A multicentre, randomised, double-blind versus placebo study was carried out. A total of 120 children, with active infections requiring antibiotics (...) and duration of events in children with antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

2003 Minerva pediatrica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12328. [Efficacy of treatment of chronic destructive forms of apical periodontitis using oral decontamination antibiotic therapy]. (Abstract)

[Efficacy of treatment of chronic destructive forms of apical periodontitis using oral decontamination antibiotic therapy]. The efficiency of preventive oral antibiotic therapy before the root channel filling was evaluated in 78 patients with granulating and granulomatous chronic periodontitis. Positive clinical changes were observed after lincomycin or rondomycin therapy (p = 0.017). The number of complaints was also less in the latter group (p > 0.05). The incidence of x-ray restoration

2003 Stomatologii͡a Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12329. Evaluation of an antibiotic-impregnated shunt system for the treatment of hydrocephalus. (Abstract)

Evaluation of an antibiotic-impregnated shunt system for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Staphylococcus species are the most common organisms responsible for infection following implantable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversionary procedures. The role of an antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) system in the prevention of shunt infection has remained unclear because no human clinical trial has been reported on thus far. In this study, the authors assess an AIS system with respect to its prevention

2003 Journal of neurosurgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12330. The effect of intraoperative antibiotics in irrigating solutions on aqueous humor contamination and endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification surgery. (Abstract)

The effect of intraoperative antibiotics in irrigating solutions on aqueous humor contamination and endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification surgery. To determine the efficacy of intraoperative antibiotic use in irrigating solutions on aqueous humor contamination during phacoemulsification surgery and to evaluate the corresponding risk of postoperative endophthalmitis.644 eyes of 640 patients who underwent phacoemulsification surgery with foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were (...) included in this study. Preoperative conjunctival smears were taken and eyes were allocated to receive irrigating infusion fluid containing either balanced salt solution (BSS)-only (group 1; 322 eyes) or BSS with antibiotics (vancomycin and gentamycin) during surgery (group 2; 322 eyes). Bacterial contamination rates of aqueous humor samples taken in the beginning and at the end of operation were compared. Predictive factors for the development of postoperative endophthalmitis were determined

2003 European journal of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12331. [Ambulatory vs. inpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy in mucoviscidosis patients--a controlled study]. (Abstract)

[Ambulatory vs. inpatient intravenous antibiotic therapy in mucoviscidosis patients--a controlled study]. 14 patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic pulmonary pseudomonas infection received four courses of two-week intravenous antibiotic therapy at home and during hospitalisation over an 18-month period. Following a controlled, intra-individual cross-over design, two courses of home therapy were followed by two courses of hospital treatment or vice versa. Parameters for inflammation, lung (...) function, and body mass index were obtained at the beginning and end of each intravenous antibiotic therapy. Health-related quality of life, i.e. physical, emotional, social and functional components as well as happiness and medical care, was assessed at the end of each course.There was a trend towards better reduction of infection (p = 0.20 for leukocyte reduction) and improvement of lung function (p = 0.20 for FEV1 improvement) with hospital intravenous antibiotic therapy, although the differences

1999 Pneumologie (Stuttgart, Germany) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12332. Three-day antibiotic therapy with azithromycin and tinidazole plus lansoprazole or pantoprazole to cure Helicobacter pylori infection: a pilot study. (Abstract)

Three-day antibiotic therapy with azithromycin and tinidazole plus lansoprazole or pantoprazole to cure Helicobacter pylori infection: a pilot study. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of two proton-pump inhibitors, lansoprazole (Limpidex 30 mg, Sigmatau) vs pantoprazole (Peptazol 40 mg, Boehringer Mannheim), included in a three-day antibiotic therapy regimen with azithromycin (Zitromax 500 mg, Pfizer) and tinidazole (Fasigin 500 mg, Pfizer).Seventy (...) and intention-to-treat: 83%). Mild or slight side-effects occurred in only one patient in the LAT group and in one in the PAT group.From this study there is no evidence that either of the two proton-pump inhibitors used is preferable in a three-day antibiotic regimen with azithromycin and tinidazole. The excellent side-effect and tolerability profiles, associated with acceptable eradication rates, make the two treatment regimens we tested particularly useful when patient compliance is difficult to achieve.

1999 European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12333. Management of partial thickness facial burns (comparison of topical antibiotics and bio-engineered skin substitutes). (Abstract)

Management of partial thickness facial burns (comparison of topical antibiotics and bio-engineered skin substitutes). This study compared the effect of standard topical antibiotic management versus a biological skin substitute wound closure for mid-partial thickness burns of the face. Adult patients with mid-dermal facial burns produced by flash flames or flame exposure were studied using a randomized prospective study design. Total daily burn care time, pain (0-10 scale) and healing time were (...) versus 13 +/- 4 days in the skin substitute group compared to topical antibiotics. We can conclude that a bioengineered skin substitute significantly improves the management and healing rate of partial thickness facial burns, compared to the standard open topical ointment technique.

1999 Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12334. Antibacterial efficacy of benzoyl peroxide in phospholipid liposomes. A vehicle-controlled, comparative study in patients with papulopustular acne. (Abstract)

Antibacterial efficacy of benzoyl peroxide in phospholipid liposomes. A vehicle-controlled, comparative study in patients with papulopustular acne. Literature reports indicate that phospholipid liposomes facilitate the accumulation of active agents in the infundibulum.The study hypothesis of an improved antibacterial efficacy of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in phospholipid liposomes was tested in comparison with a commercial and a pharmacopoeial BPO preparation.The infundibular bacterial samples were (...) obtained with the Permabond technique from 20 acne patients who had been treated with the test substances (vehicle-controlled) for 2 weeks twice per day in a single-blinded, comparative study on the upper back.A significant antibacterial effect in the infundibula (Propionibacteria and Micrococcaceae, both: p < 0.001) for a BPO phospholipid liposome formulation could be demonstrated. In comparison to the other significantly efficacious BPO formulations which were also tested (commercial product

1999 Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12335. Randomized, double-blind trial of an antibiotic-lock technique for prevention of gram-positive central venous catheter-related infection in neutropenic patients with cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomized, double-blind trial of an antibiotic-lock technique for prevention of gram-positive central venous catheter-related infection in neutropenic patients with cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy of an antibiotic-lock technique in preventing endoluminal catheter-related infection with gram-positive bacteria in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Patients with nontunneled, multilumen central venous catheters were assigned in a randomized (...) bacteremia), whereas none of the patients in the heparin and vancomycin group had catheter-related bacteremia (P = 0.05). The times to catheter hub colonization and to catheter-related bacteremia by the Kaplan-Meier method were longer in patients receiving heparin and vancomycin than in patients receiving heparin alone (P = 0.004 and P = 0.06, respectively). Our study shows that a solution containing heparin and vancomycin administered by using an antibiotic-lock technique effectively prevents catheter

1999 Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12336. Effect of topical antibiotic therapy on recovery after tonsillectomy in adults. (Abstract)

Effect of topical antibiotic therapy on recovery after tonsillectomy in adults. Systemic antibiotics given during the first week after tonsillectomy appear to be effective in reducing postoperative morbidity. We assessed the effectiveness of perioperative topical antibiotic rinses in reducing posttonsillectomy morbidity.A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study of 36 patients undergoing tonsillectomy was used to evaluate the effects of a standard 7-day systemic regimen (...) of perioperative intravenous ampicillin/oral amoxicillin and 2 single-day topical antibiotic regimens: (1) clindamycin (Cleocin) and (2) amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and ticarcillin/clavulanate (Timentin).Mean aerobic and anaerobic oral bacterial counts were decreased in both topical treatment groups compared with the placebo group on the first postoperative day, achieving statistical significance with Augmentin/Timentin (aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts) and Cleocin (aerobic counts

1999 Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12337. High-dose aprotinin with gentamicin-vancomycin antibiotic prophylaxis increases blood concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. (Abstract)

High-dose aprotinin with gentamicin-vancomycin antibiotic prophylaxis increases blood concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Both aprotinin and gentamicin-vancomycin antibiotic prophylaxis have been used widely in cardiac surgery to prevent bleeding and infections, respectively. As the drugs are excreted almost entirely by glomerular filtration, we investigated their action on renal function when administered either separately (...) or together. To increase consistency, we measured serum concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C, a new marker of glomerular filtration rate, that many recent studies have shown to be more sensitive than serum creatinine. One hundred patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were allocated randomly to one of four groups: group A received antibiotic prophylaxis with cefamandole and no aprotinin; group B received cefamandole and high-dose aprotinin; group C received antibiotic prophylaxis

1999 British Journal of Anaesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12338. A prospective, randomised comparison of single- vs. multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating trauma. (Abstract)

A prospective, randomised comparison of single- vs. multiple-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in penetrating trauma. This study was designed to compare the clinical efficacy of a single dose of ceftriaxone with cefoxitin given 3 times a day for 3 days.Patients had to have a penetrating injury to only one part of the body, reach the hospital within 2 h and be operated on within 16 h after the trauma. Patients were excluded if it appeared likely that they would require mechanical ventilation for more (...) than 24 h. The same applies to open or grade II/III craniocerebral trauma. The end point was the occurrence of infections within 10 days. The costs of antibiotic treatment were also calculated.96% of the ceftriaxone patients (n = 97) and 95% of the cefoxitin group (n = 98) remained infection-free. In neither treatment group was deep infection, abscess, phlegmon or sepsis seen. No additional surgery or intensive care due to infection was required. At $41.83 vs. $172.16, the average total cost

1999 Chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12339. Antibacterial activity of retinaldehyde against Propionibacterium acnes. (Abstract)

Antibacterial activity of retinaldehyde against Propionibacterium acnes. Retinaldehyde has been shown to exert antibacterial activity in vitro.This study evaluates the effect of retinaldehyde on Propionibacterium acnes both in vivo and in vitro.Microbial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of retinaldehyde and retinoic acid were determined on reference strains of P. acnes. In vivo activity of daily topical application of 0.05% retinaldehyde on the P. acnes density was evaluated after (...) of retinaldehyde against P. acnes suggests a direct antibacterial activity. Daily topical application of 0.05% retinaldehyde is associated with a clear reduction of the P. acnes density.

1999 Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12340. The effect of antibiotic therapy on bleeding from duodenal ulcer. (Abstract)

The effect of antibiotic therapy on bleeding from duodenal ulcer. We conducted this study to test whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection prevents hemorrhage related to duodenal ulcer.Patients with H. pylori infection and endoscopically proven duodenal ulcers without ulcer-related hemorrhage were enrolled into four randomized, double-blind, multicenter studies using the same study protocol. They were treated with clarithromycin plus omeprazole (441 patients), omeprazole (...) predisposing risk factors for ulcer bleeding, antibiotic eradication or suppression of H. pylori infection prevented the occurrence of ulcer-related hemorrhage for up to 1 yr after therapy.

1999 The American journal of gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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