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antibiotics

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12301. [Comparative study of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: ranitidine bismuth citrate versus omeprazole plus two antibiotics for seven days]. (Abstract)

[Comparative study of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: ranitidine bismuth citrate versus omeprazole plus two antibiotics for seven days]. To compare the efficacy of ranitidine bismuth citrate (RB) combined with two antibiotics during seven days in comparison with OCA-7 for treatment of Helicobacter pylori.In a randomized clinical trial 200, consecutive patients infected by Helicobacter pylori were studied prospectively. One of two regimens was given for 7 days; OCA-7 (omeprazole 20 mg (...) eradication was in the group OCA-7 of 78% and 77% in group RBCA-7 (p = 0.3). Five patients in the group OCA-7 and nine in the group RBCA-7, had side effects, three of these patients did not complete therapy by diarrhea.RB with two antibiotics is as effective and safe as OCA-7 for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

2001 Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12302. Reduction in gram-positive pneumonia and antibiotic consumption following the use of a SDD protocol including nasal and oral mupirocin. (Abstract)

Reduction in gram-positive pneumonia and antibiotic consumption following the use of a SDD protocol including nasal and oral mupirocin. The objective of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of mupirocin to the 'classical' topical SDD regimen (tobramycin 80 mg, polymyxin E 100 mg, amphotericin B 500 mg) on the development of ICU-acquired infections due to gram-positive bacteria. The study was carried out in an intensive care unit (ICU (...) ) of a 1400-bed community hospital. All patients admitted to the ICU during a 16-month period, who were expected to require mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours, were randomized to receive either the 'classical' SDD regimen (Group A) or a modified regimen with mupirocin (Group B). Data from 223 patients requiring mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, who were neither infected nor receiving antibiotics on ICU admission, was analysed. A 2% paste containing tobramycin, polymyxin E

2001 European journal of emergency medicine : official journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12303. A randomized controlled clinical trial on etimicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, versus netilmicin in the treatment of bacterial infections. (Abstract)

A randomized controlled clinical trial on etimicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, versus netilmicin in the treatment of bacterial infections. To compare the efficacy and safety of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, etimicin and netilmicin, in the treatment of bacterial infections.A randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial was conducted for the treatment of 65 patients hospitalized with respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and tissue infections. Thirty-four

2000 Chinese medical journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12304. [Effects of elective cesarean section and antibiotics to the bacterial flora in female genital tract]. (Abstract)

[Effects of elective cesarean section and antibiotics to the bacterial flora in female genital tract]. To study the effects of elective cesarean section and antibiotics to the bacterial flora in the normal female genital tract.Forty-five cases of elective cesarean section were randomly divided into 3 groups: no antibiotic was given (group A), one antibiotic was given for three days (group B), and only once antibiotic was used (group C). Bacterial cultures of vaginal swab and specimens aspirated (...) in group A. The counts of aerobe, on the other hand, were more than those of anaerobe both in group B and C after operation. The rates of positive bacterial culture in uterine cavity after operation were similar among the three groups (P > 0.05). Interestingly the operative infection rates were 6.67% evenly.Both cesarean section and antibiotics may disturb the bacterial flora in the normal female genital tract. The disturbance may increase the chance for flora imbalance and the postoperative infection

2000 Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12305. Antibacterial effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation at different energy settings in root canals. (Abstract)

Antibacterial effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation at different energy settings in root canals. The in vitro study aimed at the determination of the bacterial reduction in root canals used pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation without a photosensitizing dye. In addition the temperature change in the root canals was determined during laser irradiation. The study sample was 114 root canals of extracted single-rooted human teeth that have been enlarged mechanically, sterilized, and randomly assigned (...) ). The Nd:YAG laser radiation has antimicrobial effects in root canals even in the absence of photosensitizing dyes but also causes considerable temperature increase.

2002 Journal of Endodontics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12306. Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of sitafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in healthy male and female Caucasian subjects. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetics and absolute bioavailability of sitafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, in healthy male and female Caucasian subjects. 1. The aim was to compare the pharmacokinetics of sitafloxacin from a capsule formulation (dose of 500 mg sitafloxacin) and an intravenous (i.v.) formulation infused over 1 h (dose of 400 mg sitafloxacin) in healthy male and female subjects and to estimate the absolute bioavailability of sitafloxacin from the capsule formulation. 2. Following oral (...) fluoroquinolone antibacterial.

2001 Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12307. Duodenal ulcer healing rates in a one-year follow-up study with ranitidine bismuth citrate and antibiotics. (Abstract)

Duodenal ulcer healing rates in a one-year follow-up study with ranitidine bismuth citrate and antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the one-year outcome of an eradication therapy with ranitidine bismuth citrate and antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients in respect to ulcer and Helicobacter pylori relapse rates.This multicenter, randomized, double-blind study involved 648 duodenal ulcer patients and had been carried out to compare the following

2002 Hepato-gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12308. Influencing antibiotic prescribing by prescriber feedback and management guidelines: a 5-year follow-up. (Abstract)

Influencing antibiotic prescribing by prescriber feedback and management guidelines: a 5-year follow-up. The extent of use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) prompted a previous study of an educational intervention based on prescriber feedback and management guidelines. This study demonstrated a reduction in antibiotic prescribing for URTI and a more appropriate choice of antibiotic for tonsillitis/streptococcal pharyngitis. There are few long-term follow-up studies (...) of educational programmes of this kind.This follow-up study aimed to examine if the reduction in antibiotic prescribing observed in the intervention group of the original study remained present after 5 years, and how the prescribing behaviour of the GPs involved in the follow-up differed from a large national survey of GP prescribing.Attempts were made to contact the 157 GPs involved in the original study. Of these, 121 were both located and currently working in general practice. Ninety-six consented to take

2002 Family Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12309. Approaches to analysis of length of hospital stay related to antibiotic therapy in a randomized clinical trial: linezolid versus vancomycin for treatment of known or suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species infections. (Abstract)

Approaches to analysis of length of hospital stay related to antibiotic therapy in a randomized clinical trial: linezolid versus vancomycin for treatment of known or suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species infections. As length of hospital stay (LOS) represents about 70-90% of the total cost of treating serious infections, it represents a key variable in analyzing the health economic differences between treatments for hospitalized patients. In a retrospective analysis using LOS (...) data from a multinational, randomized, phase III clinical trial, we examined two methods (the log-logistic model and Kaplan-Meier survival function) and three approaches (unadjusted total LOS, total LOS adjusted for nontreatment factors, and adjusted LOS based on antibiotic treatment [the antibiotic treatment LOS]) for estimating antibiotic treatment effect on LOS and determined if these approaches could reduce the variation in LOS and control for the imbalance between treatment groups. The trial

2002 Pharmacotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12310. Therapeutic effects of antibacterial treatment for intractable skin diseases in Helicobacter pylori-positive Japanese patients. (Abstract)

Therapeutic effects of antibacterial treatment for intractable skin diseases in Helicobacter pylori-positive Japanese patients. In order to understand the pathogenic relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and skin diseases, we examined the serum levels of IgG antibody against H. pylori and then performed gastroscopic examinations in Japanese patients with chronic skin diseases. These H. prylori-positive patients were treated with antibacterial eradication therapy, and therapeutic

2002 The Journal of dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12311. Short-term (48 hours) versus long-term (7 days) antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation. (Abstract)

Short-term (48 hours) versus long-term (7 days) antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation. Infection following permanent pacemaker implantation is a dreaded complication. Antibiotic prophylaxis for 1-10 days at the time of implant has been used in the past but there is no consensus regarding its duration. We carried out a prospective, randomized study of two durations of antibiotic prophylaxis to determine which one was more effective.One hundred and seventy-eight patients (...) undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation for the first time were randomized to receive short duration (group A, n = 8 8) or longer duration (group B, n = 90) antibiotic prophylaxis for 2 days and 7 days, respectively. Patients in both groups received cloxacillin 2 g 2 hours prior to the procedure followed by ampicillin and cloxacillin (50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses) and gentamicin (3 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses) for the respective duration. Patients were followed up for 1-17.3 months (9.3 +/- 1.8

2002 Indian heart journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12312. Lymecycline and minocycline in inflammatory acne: a randomized, double-blind intent-to-treat study on clinical and in vivo antibacterial efficacy. (Abstract)

Lymecycline and minocycline in inflammatory acne: a randomized, double-blind intent-to-treat study on clinical and in vivo antibacterial efficacy. Some antibiotics represent a mainstay in acne treatment. However, studies comparing their efficacies are rare.To evaluate the clinical and in vivo antibacterial effect of lymecycline and minocycline at different dosages.Eighty-six patients with moderate to severe acne were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, intent-to-treat study comparing

2002 Skin pharmacology and applied skin physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12313. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implantation for vesico-ureteral reflux: a randomized comparison with antibiotic prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer implantation for vesico-ureteral reflux: a randomized comparison with antibiotic prophylaxis. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Dx/HA) copolymer has favorable properties for endoscopic treatment of vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). This open, randomized study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Dx/HA copolymer with antibiotic prophylaxis in children with VUR.Children >1 year of age with VUR grade II to IV (confirmed by voiding cysto-urethrogram (...) ) received endoscopic treatment with Dx/HA copolymer (n = 40) or 12 months of antibiotic prophylaxis (n = 21). Patients in the latter group with reflux grade >or=II at month 3 received a second implantation. All patients were reassessed by voiding cysto-urethrogram at month 12. Scintigraphy and ultrasound were performed to investigate renal status.At month 12, 69% of patients in the Dx/HA copolymer group had reflux grade antibiotic group (P =.029). Of patients

2002 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12314. Primary resistance to antibiotics and its clinical impact on the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori lansoprazole-based triple therapies. (Abstract)

Primary resistance to antibiotics and its clinical impact on the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori lansoprazole-based triple therapies. To evaluate Helicobacter pylori primary resistance and its clinical impact on the efficacy of two lansoprazole-based eradication triple therapies.H. pylori-positive patients (n=228) were randomized to receive one of the 1-week regimens: lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1 g (LAC), or lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg (...) and metronidazole 500 mg (LMC), each given twice daily. H. pylori status was assessed by 13C-urea breath test and culture at diagnosis and by 13C-urea breath test 6 weeks after therapy. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test (n=98).The eradication rates with per protocol/ intention-to-treat analyses were: LAC (n=95/114) 83%/69% and LMC (n=96/114) 85%/72%. Primary resistance was 11% for clarithromycin, 41% for metronidazole and 0% for amoxicillin. Eradication in metronidazole-susceptible/-resistant

2002 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12315. [Role of antibiotic prophylaxis in ambulatory cystoscopy]. (Abstract)

[Role of antibiotic prophylaxis in ambulatory cystoscopy]. There has been a great deal of discussion regarding the necessity of antibiotic prophylaxis in transurethral cystoscopy. In order to clarify this complicated issue, a randomized prospective study was performed on 126 patients planned for cystoscopy.126 patients who underwent urethrocystoscopy and did not have pyuria and bacteriuria were included and divided randomly into 2 groups: group 1 received 400 mg of norfloxacine and group 2 (...) nothing. Urinalysis were performed on all patients 3 days after the examination. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi 2 test and the level of significance was set at 5%.The global rate of infection was 5%. In the group 1 the incidence of infection was 3% (2/67) vs 5.1% (5/59) in group 2. There were no significant differences in the incidence in the background factor between the 2 groups of patients (p > 0.05).Prophylactic administration of antibiotic before cystoscopy does not decrease

2001 Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12316. Evaluation of endotoxin release and cytokine production induced by antibiotics in patients with Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. (Abstract)

Evaluation of endotoxin release and cytokine production induced by antibiotics in patients with Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. To determine the plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 in a homogeneous group of septic patients and to evaluate the effect of antibiotic treatment, imipenem or ceftazidime, on the release of lipopolysaccharide and cytokines.Prospective, randomized study.Sixteen-bed multidisciplinary (...) intensive care unit.Twenty-four septic patients with documented Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. Controls were 20 patients admitted without sepsis and 20 healthy volunteers.Septic patients were randomized between imipenem and ceftazidime. Blood samples were collected before (0 hrs) and after (4 and 12 hrs) antibiotic treatment. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide were measured by using the limulus assay, and cytokine concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical

2002 Critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12317. The influence of preoperative antibiotics on success of endosseous implants at 36 months. (Abstract)

The influence of preoperative antibiotics on success of endosseous implants at 36 months. The benefits of prophylactic antibiotics are well recognized in dentistry. However, their routine use in the placement of endosseous dental implants remains controversial. As part of the comprehensive Dental Implant Clinical Research Group (DICRG) clinical implant study, the preoperative or postoperative use of antibiotics, the type used, and the duration of coverage were left to the discretion (...) of the surgeon. These data for 2,973 implants were recorded and correlated with failure of osseointegration during healing (Stage 1), at surgical uncovering (Stage 2), before loading the prosthesis (Stage 3), and from prosthesis loading to 36 months (Stage 4). The results showed a significantly higher survival rate at each stage of treatment in patients who had received preoperative antibiotics.

2000 Annals of periodontology / the American Academy of Periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12318. Increased primary resistance to recommended antibiotics negatively affects Helicobacter pylori eradication. (Abstract)

Increased primary resistance to recommended antibiotics negatively affects Helicobacter pylori eradication. To evaluate the efficacy of two commonly employed treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection and the impact of bacterial resistance to antibiotics on eradication rate.Ninety-two consecutive H. pylori-positive patients with active peptic ulcer disease were randomly enrolled to receive a 7-day treatment with either lansoprazole 30 mg plus amoxicillin 1 g and clarithromycin 500 mg [all (...) twice a day (b.i.d.), Group A, n = 46]; or bismuth subcitrate 125 mg four times a day (q.i.d.) plus tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d and furazolidone 200 mg b.i.d. (Group B, n = 46) H. pylori status was reassessed 30 days after completion of the therapy and bacterial resistance to the antibiotics was investigated using an in vitro assay.Five patients from each study group were lost to follow up. Both treatments resulted in similar H. pylori eradication rate: 66-60% (per protocol), 59-52% (intention

2002 Helicobacter Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12319. [The influence of antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of fever and wound infection after gynecological operations in patients with increased risk of infection]. (Abstract)

[The influence of antibiotic prophylaxis on the incidence of fever and wound infection after gynecological operations in patients with increased risk of infection]. Antibiotic prophylaxis was applied to patients with high risk of infection undergoing: myomectomy m. Martin, procedures on the uterine adnexa, total and/or subtotal hysterectomy and laparoscopy. The influence of this prophylaxis on the incidence of fever and wound infection was observed. For vaginal hysterectomy antibiotic

2001 Ginekologia polska Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12320. A randomised controlled clinical trial of antibiotic impregnation of testosterone pellet implants to reduce extrusion rate. (Abstract)

A randomised controlled clinical trial of antibiotic impregnation of testosterone pellet implants to reduce extrusion rate. Testosterone pellet implantation is a safe, effective and convenient form of depot androgen replacement, with extrusion of pellets following about 10% of procedures the most frequent adverse effect. This study aimed to determine whether extrusion rate could be reduced by antibiotic impregnation of pellets immediately prior to implantation.Prospective, randomised, parallel (...) , shaving, skin preparation, operator, pellet batch, bruising) were collected at implantation time.The extrusion rate was 20% lower (odds ratio=0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-1.62) but not statistically different between the two groups (extrusion rate 23/205 (11.2%) for the control group vs 18/195 (9.2%) for the antibiotic-soak group, P=0.42). One operator experienced more total (P=0.0002) and infection-related (P=0.0008) extrusions and marginally more bruising (P=0.06) than other operators

2002 European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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