How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

12,411 results for

antibiotics

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

12281. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in mandibular fractures: A preliminary randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study. (Abstract)

Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in mandibular fractures: A preliminary randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical study. This study evaluated the difference between the effect of a 5-day postoperative course of oral antibiotics and a placebo on the incidence of postoperative infection in uncomplicated fractures of the mandible.A prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study using a placebo control was carried out. Thirty patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups (...) %) and 2 of 16 patients in group 2 (12.5%) developed infections. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of infection was noted between the groups.In this preliminary study, the use of postoperative oral antibiotics in uncomplicated fractures of the mandible had no benefit in reducing the incidence of infections.Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

2001 Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12282. Linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic: assessment of monoamine oxidase inhibition using pressor response to oral tyramine. (Abstract)

Linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibiotic: assessment of monoamine oxidase inhibition using pressor response to oral tyramine. The primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of oral linezolid with moclobemide and placebo on the pressor response to oral tyramine. Secondary objectives were to determine possible mechanisms of the effect based on changes in the pharmacokinetics of tyramine and to evaluate alternative methods for quantifying the pressor effect. Subjects received

2001 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12283. Pneumonia after cardiac surgery is predictable by tracheal aspirates but cannot be prevented by prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Pneumonia after cardiac surgery is predictable by tracheal aspirates but cannot be prevented by prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of tracheal aspirate as a predictor of pneumonia after coronary artery bypass grafting and to evaluate the efficacy of prolonged perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis.Tracheal aspirates of 500 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were taken immediately after intubation and analyzed for microorganisms (...) by Gram stain and semiquantitative microbiologic cultures. All patients received 2 g ceftriaxone as a single-dose perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis before operation. Results of Gram stains were available before the patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. After the results were known, both groups of patients (positive Gram stain, group 1; negative Gram stain, group 2) were randomly assigned to either conventional antibiotic prophylaxis (A), consisting of ceftriaxone 2 g

2001 The Annals of thoracic surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12284. [Patient adherence in respiratory tract infections: ceftibuten versus other antibiotics (PARTICULAR study)]. (Abstract)

[Patient adherence in respiratory tract infections: ceftibuten versus other antibiotics (PARTICULAR study)]. The study was conducted to evaluate patient compliance to antibiotic therapy in respiratory tract infections. The main aim of the study was to establish whether dosing frequency (1 vs 2 or 3 times daily) and other factors influence compliance. Patients aged 18 and over attending selected primary health facilities in Lódź region were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive (...) ceftibuten, 400 mg once daily or other antibiotic on physician's choice with 2 or 3 times daily dosing. On the 5th day during the home visit the questionnaire study was performed and the compliance was measured by a pill count. Four hundred and six patients (205 in ceftibuten and 201 in other antibiotics group, respectively) were fully evaluable. Overall compliance was 76.6% with 97.6% for ceftibuten, 66.0% for antibiotics with b.i.d. dosing and 23.5% for antibiotics with t.i.d. dosing. Using a logistic

2001 Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12285. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (Abstract)

Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. To assess the efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in adults and, secondarily, to assess the effect of coadministered Lactobacillus GG on the number of tests performed to determine the cause of diarrhea.In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from July 1998 to October 1999, 302 hospitalized patients (...) receiving antibiotics were randomized to receive Lactobacillus GG, 20 x 10(9) CFU/d, or placebo for 14 days. Subjects recorded the number of stools and their consistency daily for 21 days. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who developed diarrhea in the first 21 days after enrollment. Weekly telephone follow-up was also performed. Results were analyzed in an intention-to-treat fashion.Diarrhea developed in 39 (29.3%) of 133 patients randomized to receive Lactobacillus GG and in 40 (29.9

2001 Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12286. Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with cancer who are receiving broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. A randomized, controlled tria (Abstract)

Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with cancer who are receiving broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. A randomized, controlled tria Amphotericin B deoxycholate is currently the standard empirical antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients with cancer who have persistent fever that does not respond to antibiotic therapy. However, this treatment often causes infusion-related (...) and metabolic toxicities, which may be dose limiting.To compare the efficacy and safety of itraconazole with those of amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy.An open randomized, controlled, multicenter trial, powered for equivalence.60 oncology centers in 10 countries.384 neutropenic patients with cancer who had persistent fever that did not respond to antibiotic therapy.Intravenous amphotericin B or intravenous itraconazole followed by oral itraconazole solution.Defervescence, breakthrough fungal

2001 Annals of internal medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12287. Antibiotic use, hospital admissions, and mortality before and after implementing guidelines for nursing home-acquired pneumonia. (Abstract)

Antibiotic use, hospital admissions, and mortality before and after implementing guidelines for nursing home-acquired pneumonia. To compare two strategies for implementing guidelines for nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) and to measure outcomes associated with treatment in accordance with the guidelines.Randomized controlled trial.Ten skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) from a single metropolitan area.Patients with an episode of pneumonia acquired more than 3 days after admission to SNF (N (...) ) of the episodes were treated with parenteral antibiotics (PA) when PA were recommended by the guidelines and 57.6% (57/99) of episodes were treated with oral antibiotics (OA) when OA were indicated by the guidelines. Postintervention, treatment with PA and OA according to the guidelines was not significantly different between the two groups of randomized SNFs. A multivariate analysis comparing PA use pre- and postintervention for all SNFs, adjusted for variation in the frequency and severity of pneumonia

2001 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12288. Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to other treatments with topical antibiotic therapy delivered by means of a large-particle nebulizer: results of a controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to other treatments with topical antibiotic therapy delivered by means of a large-particle nebulizer: results of a controlled trial. To study the efficacy of nebulized topical saline-tobramycin solution in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis refractory to medical and surgical therapy.Twenty patients in whom endoscopic sinus surgery failed to relieve symptoms entered a randomized, double-blind trial of tobramycin-saline solution or saline-only

2001 Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12289. Comparison of 1-week vs. 2- or 4-week therapy regimens with ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication. (Abstract)

Comparison of 1-week vs. 2- or 4-week therapy regimens with ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies based on ranitidine bismuth citrate have recently been introduced in clinical practice.To compare the efficacy of three regimens containing ranitidine bismuth citrate given for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, combined with two antibiotics for the first week, in the eradication of H. pylori.Eighty-six consecutive patients (50

2001 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12290. A multicenter study on eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer by lansoprazole-antibiotics combined therapy. (Abstract)

A multicenter study on eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with duodenal ulcer by lansoprazole-antibiotics combined therapy. The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to find out if there is one or several promising regimens containing lansoprazole with various combinations of antibiotics which have a high eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori, few side-effects, good patient compliance, and relative low cost if possible. Two hundred and ninety-seven

1999 Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12291. Role of nasopharyngeal culture in antibiotic prescription for patients with common cold or acute sinusitis. (Abstract)

Role of nasopharyngeal culture in antibiotic prescription for patients with common cold or acute sinusitis. The aim of the present study was to assess the hypothesis that, when present in nasopharyngeal secretions, Streptococcus pneumoniae. Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis play a pathogenic role early in the course of an upper respiratory tract infection. Adults with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis or common cold were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned (...) %). In this predefined subgroup of patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis, resolution of symptoms by day 7 occurred in 73% of those treated with azithromycin compared with 47% of those who received placebo (P=0.007). The median time before resolution of symptoms was 5 days in the azithromycin group compared to 7 days in the placebo group. Respiratory complications requiring antibiotic treatment occurred in 19% of patients in the placebo group and in 3

2001 European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12292. Total joint arthroplasty and incidence of postoperative bacteriuria with an indwelling catheter or intermittent catheterization with one-dose antibiotic prophylaxis: a prospective randomized trial. (Abstract)

Total joint arthroplasty and incidence of postoperative bacteriuria with an indwelling catheter or intermittent catheterization with one-dose antibiotic prophylaxis: a prospective randomized trial. This study examined the difference in postoperative bacteriuria in total joint arthroplasty after use of either an indwelling catheter or intermittent catheterization. Previous studies showed a preference for an indwelling catheter over intermittent catheterization to resolve postoperative urinary (...) retention in total joint arthroplasty, but these studies generally used 48 hours of antibiotic prophylaxis. Increasing awareness of costs and bacterial resistance to antibiotics have prompted many centers to reduce prophylaxis to only 1 preoperative dose A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in primary total hip and primary total knee arthroplasty patients. One dose of cefazolin, 1 g, was administered intravenously immediately preoperatively. Five of 13 (38%) men in the indwelling

2001 Journal of Arthroplasty Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12293. [Comparison of 2 administration protocols (continuous or discontinuous) of a time-dependent antibiotic, Tazocin]. (Abstract)

[Comparison of 2 administration protocols (continuous or discontinuous) of a time-dependent antibiotic, Tazocin]. A predictive parameter of beta-lactam therapeutic efficacy is the time (T > MIC) while antibiotic serum concentrations are above the MIC of suspected bacteriological agents. This led us to carry out a randomised open study to compare the usually used intermittent administration of Tazocin (three injections of 4 g/0.5 g a day) and continuous perfusion of 12 g/1.5 g a day (...) periods occurring before each injection while antibiotic concentrations were under the MIC of most bacteria. During these same periods tazobactam concentrations were under the efficacy threshold. These periods were not observed within the continuous administration arm.

2001 Pathologie-biologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12294. Intracanal use of a corticosteroid-antibiotic compound for the management of posttreatment endodontic pain. (Abstract)

Intracanal use of a corticosteroid-antibiotic compound for the management of posttreatment endodontic pain. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind study was to determine the effect of a corticosteroid-antibiotic combination when used as an intracanal medicament for the treatment of posttreatment pain in endodontically involved teeth with vital pulp-test readings.Out of 988 patients, 480 experienced intratreatment pain. Endodontic treatment was completed in 3 visits. Patients who (...) experienced pain after the first or second visit (postextirpation or postinstrumentation) were given an emergency visit during which no local anesthetic was used. The patients randomly received either intracanal corticosteroid-antibiotic compound or a placebo. Patients subjectively rated their pain on a scale of 1 to 4 as none, mild, moderate, and severe. The ratings were done at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours postmedication.Intracanal use of the corticosteroid-antibiotic medication significantly reduced (P

2001 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12295. Randomized clinical trial of soy formula with and without added fiber in antibiotic-induced diarrhea. (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial of soy formula with and without added fiber in antibiotic-induced diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of soy formulas with and without added soy fiber in children who developed diarrhea while receiving antibiotics.In a masked, randomized parallel study, older infants and toddlers were fed commercial soy formulas with or without added soy fiber for 10 days on occurrence of diarrhea during the administration of antibiotics. Subjects were (...) for children fed the formula with added fiber and 51.6 +/- 10.7 hours for those fed the regular formula (P =.0013).The duration of antibiotic-induced diarrhea in children fed the soy formula with added soy fiber was significantly reduced.

2001 The Journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12296. Early treatment with antibiotics reduces the need for surgery in acute necrotizing pancreatitis--a single-center randomized study. (Abstract)

Early treatment with antibiotics reduces the need for surgery in acute necrotizing pancreatitis--a single-center randomized study. Pancreatic infection is the main indication for surgery and the principal determinant of prognosis in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Previous studies on the effects of antibiotics have not, however, uniformly demonstrated any reduction in the need for surgery or any decrease in mortality among these patients, although the incidence of pancreatic infections (...) was significantly reduced. This single-center randomized study was designed to compare early vs. delayed imipenem treatment for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Ninety patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (C-reactive protein > 150 mg/L, necrosis on CT) were randomized within 48 hours either to a group receiving imipenem (1.0 g plus cilastatin intravenously 3 times a day) or a control group. Not included were those who had been started on antibiotics at the referring clinic, those who were taken directly

2001 Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12297. Pathways for inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis: a randomized trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pathways for inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis: a randomized trial. We evaluated the extent of and factors that determine the inappropriate use of antibiotics that are obtained without a physician's prescription. Ninety-eight Greek pharmacists were visited by actress-researchers who played clients requesting antibiotics without a physician's prescription. Pharmacists were randomly challenged in a scenario that involved simulated cases of acute uncomplicated (...) rhinosinusitis with either low fever (38.5 degrees C) or high fever (40 degrees C). Antibiotics were offered by 34 (69%) of 49 pharmacists who were presented with the high-fever scenario and by 42 (86%) of 49 pharmacists who were presented with the low-fever scenario (risk difference, 16.3%; P = .05). Thirty-two (65%) and 35 (71%) pharmacists in the high- and low-fever study arms, respectively, agreed to sell the actress-researchers broad-spectrum antibiotics. Only 28 (57%) and 17 (35%) pharmacists

2001 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12298. A randomized trial to measure the optimal role of the pharmacist in promoting evidence-based antibiotic use in acute care hospitals. (Abstract)

A randomized trial to measure the optimal role of the pharmacist in promoting evidence-based antibiotic use in acute care hospitals. There is a considerable gap between randomized clinical trials and implementing the results into practice. This is particularly relevant in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospitals. Hospital pharmacists can be effective vehicles for bridging this gap and promoting evidence-based medicine. To determine the most effective way of using the pharmacist (...) as a vehicle for promoting the appropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the acute care hospital setting can improve the dosing of such agents. However, several barriers to optimizing the impact of the pharmacist were implied by the data. Removing these barriers could increase the pharmacists' utility as an agent for improved patient care.

2001 International journal of technology assessment in health care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12299. [Antibacterial drugs in the treatment of osteoarthrosis: results of a prospective randomized trial]. (Abstract)

[Antibacterial drugs in the treatment of osteoarthrosis: results of a prospective randomized trial]. 65 patients with knee and hip joints osteoarthrosis with concomitant urinary infection and/or irritable colon syndrome were randomized into three groups: group 1 (21 patients) received doxicyclin 200 mg/day with nistatine for three weeks with 3-week interval between the courses and bifidum-bacterin administration between the courses and after the treatment; group 2 (22 patients) received (...) biseptol 1920 mg for 3 weeks then 960 mg 10 days a month; group 3 (22 patients) consisted of controls who received no antibacterial drugs. The effect was assessed upon randomization, 3 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months after the treatment. It was established that antibacterial treatment not only attenuated dysuria and dyspepsia but also had a significant positive effect on osteoarthrosis especially in patients with x-ray stage II, allowed to reduce doses of nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs. Further studies

2001 Klinicheskaia meditsina Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12300. Evaluation of antibiotics for treatment of cattle infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. (Abstract)

Evaluation of antibiotics for treatment of cattle infected with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. To evaluate antibiotics for treatment of cattle with leptospirosis caused by Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo.Randomized controlled trial.42 healthy mixed-breed cattle.Cattle were inoculated via conjunctival instillation with L. borgpetersenii serovar hardjo. After infection and urinary shedding of L. borgpetersenii were confirmed, cattle were treated with various antibiotics (...) . To determine effectiveness of antibiotic treatment, urinary shedding of L. borgpetersenii was monitored for 4 to 6 weeks after administration of antibiotics, using darkfield microscopic examination, microbial culture, immunofluorescence testing, and a polymerase chain reaction assay.All inoculated cattle developed leptospirosis and shed leptospires in their urine. The following antibiotic treatments resulted in elimination of urinary shedding of leptospires: a single injection of oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg

2001 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

Controlled trials

Controlled trials are important tests of an intervention, particularly randomised controlled trials.  See Testing Treatments to understand the reasons why.