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antibiotics

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12241. Evaluation of an anti-chlamydial antibiotic therapy influence on asthma patients. (Abstract)

Evaluation of an anti-chlamydial antibiotic therapy influence on asthma patients. Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the most frequent pathogens causing airways infections. Contribution of chronic chlamydial infection to the following diseases: asthma, POChP, coronary heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, is particularly interesting. The connection between such infection and bronchial asthma was described in the literature in 1991. C. pneumoniae often causes asthma exacerbation; it is suggested

2003 Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska. Sectio D: Medicina Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12242. Implementation of an evidence-based guideline to reduce duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Implementation of an evidence-based guideline to reduce duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized controlled trial. Patients with pneumonia often remain hospitalized after they are stable clinically, and the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is a rate-limiting step for discharge. The purpose of this study was to determine whether implementation of an evidence-based guideline would reduce (...) the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy and length of stay for patients hospitalized with pneumonia.In a seven-site, cluster randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 325 control and 283 intervention patients who were admitted by one of 116 physician groups. Within site, physician groups were assigned randomly to receive a practice guideline alone (control arm) or a practice guideline that was implemented using a multifaceted strategy (intervention arm). The effectiveness of guideline implementation

2003 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12243. Antibiotic-coated hemodialysis catheters for the prevention of vascular catheter-related infections: a prospective, randomized study. (Abstract)

Antibiotic-coated hemodialysis catheters for the prevention of vascular catheter-related infections: a prospective, randomized study. To determine the efficacy of minocycline-rifampin-coated hemodialysis catheters in reducing catheter-related infections in patients requiring hemodialysis for acute renal failure.Between May 2000 and March 2002, 66 patients were randomly assigned to receive a minocycline-rifampin-impregnated central venous catheter and 64 were randomly assigned to receive

2003 The American journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12244. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in intraoral bone grafting procedures: a pilot study. (Abstract)

A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in intraoral bone grafting procedures: a pilot study. A pilot study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a single-dose preoperative prophylactic of the penicillin pheneticillin compared with placebo in the antibiotic prophylaxis of surgical wound infections in intra-oral bone grafting procedures.Twenty patients (age range 20-45 years) underwent an intra-oral buccal onlay graft procedure. After randomization (...) infection at the receptor site; two patients developed an infection at both the receptor and donor sites; and one patient developed an infection at the donor site only. All of these patients received a placebo. No infections were seen in the pheneticillin group. There was a statistically significant increased risk of having an infectious complication after an intra-oral bone graft without antibiotic prophylaxis.The results of this study support the efficacy of single-dose, preoperative, oral antibiotic

2003 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12245. Prophylaxis of acute posttraumatic bacterial endophthalmitis with or without combined intraocular antibiotics: a prospective, double-masked randomized pilot study. (Abstract)

Prophylaxis of acute posttraumatic bacterial endophthalmitis with or without combined intraocular antibiotics: a prospective, double-masked randomized pilot study. The effectiveness of an intraocular injection of combined gentamicin and clindamycin in the prevention of acute posttraumatic bacterial endophthalmitis following penetrating ocular injuries was evaluated in a prospective, double-masked, randomized pilot study.Sixty eyes of 60 patients with penetrating ocular injuries were treated (...) at a tertiary care hospital. Following primary repair, the eyes were randomized in two groups. Group 1, the antibiotic injection group (cases), was given an intracameral or intravitreal injection of 0.1 mL antibiotic (40 microg gentamicin and 45 microg clindamycin). Group 2 (balanced saline solution [BSS] injection group [controls]) received intracameral or intravitreal injection of 0.1 mL BSS. All patients received standard prophylactic antibiotic therapy (systemic, subconjunctival, and topical).Although

2001 International ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12246. [Evaluation of antibacterial activity of amoxycillin sodium and clavulanate potassium and the pharmacoeconomics in the therapy of acute respiratory infection]. (Abstract)

, MBC and bactericidal curve of 135 bacterial strains, Anqi was superior to the other same-kind antibiotics without beta-lactamase inhibitor, this effect was especially obvious on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli which can produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The cost-effectiveness of the consecutive therapy group was the best.Anqi has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and strong effect on the bacteria producing ESBLs, the consecutive therapy strategy should be clinically (...) [Evaluation of antibacterial activity of amoxycillin sodium and clavulanate potassium and the pharmacoeconomics in the therapy of acute respiratory infection]. To explore the antibacterial activity of amoxycillin sodium and clavulanate potassium (trade name: Anqi) in vitro and the pharmacoeconomics in the therapy of acute respiratory infection.Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bactericidal curve of amoxycillin sodium and clavulanate potassium

2003 Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12247. A randomized trial of yogurt for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (Abstract)

A randomized trial of yogurt for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is the most common adverse effect of antibiotic therapy. Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of a dietary supplement of yogurt for prevention of AAD. Two hundred two hospitalized patients receiving oral or intravenous antibiotics were randomized to receive or not receive a dietary yogurt supplement, consisting of 227 grams of commercial yogurt, and followed for 8 days. Mean

2003 Digestive diseases and sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12248. The impact of antibiotic resistance on the efficacy of three 7-day regimens against Helicobacter pylori. (Abstract)

The impact of antibiotic resistance on the efficacy of three 7-day regimens against Helicobacter pylori. Antibiotic resistance affects the success of anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies and varies greatly from country to country.To compare the efficacy of three short-term triple regimens in relation to H. pylori primary resistance in our region.We enrolled 210 H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients for this randomized, open, parallel-group study. Three arms of 70 patients each received (...) the following 1-week regimens: (1) ranitidine bismuth citrate 400 mg b.d. + clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. + metronidazole 500 mg b.d. (RCM); (2) bismuth subcitrate 240 mg b.d. + amoxycillin 1000 mg b.d. + metronidazole 500 mg b.d. (BAM); (3) omeprazole 20 mg o.d. + clarithromycin 250 mg b.d. + metronidazole 500 mg b.d. (OCM). H. pylori was assessed by CLO-test and histology before and 4 weeks after therapy. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by E-test.On intention-to-treat analysis RCM was more effective than

2000 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12249. Complicated appendicitis: is there a minimum intravenous antibiotic requirement? A prospective randomized trial. (Abstract)

Complicated appendicitis: is there a minimum intravenous antibiotic requirement? A prospective randomized trial. The proper duration of postoperative intravenous (IV) antibiotics in patients suffering complicated (perforated or gangrenous) appendicitis is debatable. Some advocate a set minimum number of IV antibiotic days whereas others discontinue IV antibiotics depending on the patient's clinical course regardless of the length of therapy. Our objective was to determine whether (...) there are differences in morbidity and resource utilization between the two treatment methodologies. Ninety-four patients with intraoperative findings of complicated appendicitis were included. In all patients IV antibiotics were discontinued on the basis of clinical factors. However, Group 1 patients were given a minimum 5-day IV antibiotic course whereas Group 2 patients had no minimum IV antibiotic requirement. Group 1 patients received more IV antibiotics than Group 2 patients did (5.9 vs 4.3 days; P = 0.014

2000 The American surgeon Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12250. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate: a randomized controlled study. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate: a randomized controlled study. To determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on infective complications after transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate.Between June 1996 and September 1998, 231 patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria entered the study; the patients were randomized into three groups. Each patient underwent transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate after a cleansing enema at 06:00 hours (...) tract infection (P = 0.01) and not for fever.In selected patients a single dose of ciprofloxacin-tinidazole is adequate prophylaxis for transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate. The present urinary infection rate was higher if no antibiotics were used. Continuing the antibiotic prophylaxis for 3 days offered no benefit over single-dose prophylaxis.

2000 BJU international Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12251. Prospective randomized study of antibiotic prophylaxis for nonlaparotomy surgery in benign conditions. (Abstract)

Prospective randomized study of antibiotic prophylaxis for nonlaparotomy surgery in benign conditions. Although postoperative infections continue to be a major problem in gynecologic surgery, there is still no consensus on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis.This prospective randomized trial was conducted to investigate the prevention of major operating site infections after nonlaparotomy surgery, with treatment regimens as follows: the first group of patients received 2 g of intravenous

2000 Chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12252. Antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)--results from a prospective randomized multicenter trial. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)--results from a prospective randomized multicenter trial. To determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) as a part of a standardized regimen.An open prospective randomised multicenter study in 216 patients. 106 received ceftriaxone 1 g i.v. 30 min preinterventionally and 110 no study medication. A standardized protocol was followed for PEG preparation, insertion, and aftercare (...) ; all patients received a 15 French gastrostomy tube. Follow-up of local and systemic infection and clinical course was continued to postintervention day 10. An aggregate erythema and exudation score > 3 or the presence of pus was taken as indicative of peristomal infection. The pharmacoeconomics of antibiotic use were also examined.In no-prophylaxis patients, wound infection rates were 23.6% on day 4 and 24.5% on day 10 vs. 7.6% (p < 0.05) and 11.4% (p < 0.05), respectively, in prophylaxis patients

2000 Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12253. One-week therapy with pantoprazole versus ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication. (Abstract)

One-week therapy with pantoprazole versus ranitidine bismuth citrate plus two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication. A combination of omeprazole plus amoxycillin (Amo) and clarithromycin (CIa) for 7 days has been studied extensively. However, the role of other proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole (Pan), in this therapy is not well known. On the other hand, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) also seems to be effective when combined with Amo and CIa. Our aim was to evaluate

2000 European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12254. The effects of sustained release doxycycline on the anaerobic flora and antibiotic-resistant patterns in subgingival plaque and saliva. (Abstract)

The effects of sustained release doxycycline on the anaerobic flora and antibiotic-resistant patterns in subgingival plaque and saliva. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodontal treatment with a sustained-release, biodegradable gel containing 8.5% doxycycline on the anaerobic flora and on antibiotic susceptibility patterns associated with subgingival plaque and saliva.Forty-five subjects with adult periodontitis were entered into a parallel design, single-blind study (...) . Regardless of treatment, the isolates were similarly distributed and belonged to the same bacterial groups.Doxycycline treatment significantly reduced the anaerobic population in plaque but did not result in a change in either the number of resistant bacteria present or the acquisition of antibiotic resistance.

2000 Journal of periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12255. Antibiotic prophylaxis for post-operative wound infection in clean elective breast surgery. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for post-operative wound infection in clean elective breast surgery. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been used to good effect in the prevention of post-operative wound infections in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations. We have assessed the use of a single dose of intravenous antibiotic (Augmentin 1.2 g), given with induction of anaesthesia as prophylaxis, against post-operative wound infection in women undergoing clean, elective breast surgery. Three hundred (...) and thirty-four patients were recruited. Of the 164 receiving antibiotic prophylaxis 29 (17.7%) had wound infections compared with 32 (18.8%) in the placebo group (P=0.79). There were no significant differences in any other post-operative infective complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis is probably not required in clean, elective breast surgery.Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

2000 European Journal of Surgical Oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12256. A newly formulated topical triple-antibiotic ointment minimizes scarring. (Abstract)

A newly formulated topical triple-antibiotic ointment minimizes scarring. A randomized study of polymyxin B sulfate-bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate versus simple gauze-type dressings in dermabrasion wounds assessed the effects that each treatment had on scarring. Each of three uniform dermabrasion wounds created on the upper backs of 70 subjects was treated concurrently with a triple-antibiotic ointment (polymyxin B-bacitracin-neomycin), a double antibiotic (polymyxin B-bacitracin (...) ), or a simple, non-occlusive, gauze-type dressing, twice daily for up to 14 days. Pigmentary changes and textural changes (scarring) appearing after healing at the skin surface test sites were compared to adjacent normal skin at 45 and 90 days post-dermabrasion. These changes were graded visually utilizing fluorescent light, long-wave ultraviolet light, and by clinical color photography. The triple-antibiotic ointment was superior to simple gauze-type dressing alone in minimizing the scarring observed

2000 Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12257. The significance of interleukin-6 concentrations in cervicovaginal fluid: its relation to umbilical cord plasma and the influence of antibiotic treatment. (Abstract)

The significance of interleukin-6 concentrations in cervicovaginal fluid: its relation to umbilical cord plasma and the influence of antibiotic treatment. This study was performed to correlate cervicovaginal fluid and umbilical cord plasma level of IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) and to see the effect of antibiotics on those concentrations. As a part of a randomized controlled trial of treatment in PROM with antibiotics, cervicovaginal fluid was sampled (...) = 0.469, p < 0.01). The difference of concentrations in IL-6 and IL-8 was not significant between cases with (n = 20) and without (n = 16) ampicillin. Our observation indicates that the measurement of IL-6 concentrations in cervicovaginal fluid is a useful marker for PROM patients who are more likely to develop neonatal infection and the antibiotic treatment does not necessarily produce their beneficial effects on fetuses at the risk of infection.

2000 Journal of perinatal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12258. Changes of the serum antibiotic levels during open heart surgery (ceftazidim, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin). (Abstract)

Changes of the serum antibiotic levels during open heart surgery (ceftazidim, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin). Wound, mediastinal and intracardiac infections are still very serious complications of open-heart surgery. The incidence of it is still in the range of 0.4%-5%. The aims of our study were to assess the adequacy of regimen using ceftazidim (CTZ), ciprofloxacin (CPF) and clindamycin (CLIN) as prophylactic antibiotics and to verify whether cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can modify the time (...) of antibiotic serum concentrations. That is why the serum levels of them were measured during open heart procedures.The prospective study comprised 75 consequent coronary patients randomized in to three groups receiving 1 g of CTZ or 400 mg of CPF or 900 mg of CLIN i.v. with anesthesia induction. Routine coronary surgery with left internal mammary artery harvesting, moderate body hypothermic (30 degrees C) CPB with crystaloid cardioplegia was performed. Serum antibiotic levels were determined before

2000 Acta medica (Hradec Králové) / Universitas Carolina, Facultas Medica Hradec Králové Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12259. Antibiotic residues in milk following bulbar subconjunctival injection of procaine penicillin G in dairy cows. (Abstract)

Antibiotic residues in milk following bulbar subconjunctival injection of procaine penicillin G in dairy cows. To determine whether, and at what time, penicillin enters milk at a concentration that is detectable following bulbar subconjunctival injection in lactating dairy cows.Randomized clinical trial.66 Holstein cows that were at least 2 weeks past calving and had not been treated with antibiotics in the preceding 30 days.Cows were randomly assigned to receive a treatment of 1 ml (300,000 (...) treatment and at 4, 10, 16, 22, 28, and 40 hours after treatment were 0, 9, 87, 42, 8, 0, and 0%, respectively. None of the untreated cows had positive test results for beta-lactam antibiotics at any sampling time.Penicillin was detected in milk for up to 22 hours after a single subconjunctival injection of procaine penicillin G in cows. This result should be considered when recommending milk withholding periods following the administration of penicillin by this route in lactating dairy cows.

2000 Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12260. Non-absorbable antibiotics for managing intestinal gas production and gas-related symptoms. (Abstract)

Non-absorbable antibiotics for managing intestinal gas production and gas-related symptoms. Simethicone, activated charcoal and antimicrobial drugs have been used to treat gas-related symptoms with conflicting results.To study the relationship between gaseous symptoms and colonic gas production and to test the efficacy of rifaximin, a new non-absorbable antimicrobial agent, on these symptoms.Intestinal gas production was measured by hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) breath testing after lactulose

2000 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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