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antibiotics

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12221. Antibiotic prophylaxis at Cesarean delivery. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis at Cesarean delivery. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of ampicillin, cefotetan, and ampicillin/sulbactam in the prevention of post-Cesarean endomyometritis.Consenting patients undergoing Cesarean delivery at the University of Louisville Hospital were enrolled in a prospective, double-blinded randomization to receive either ampicillin/sulbactam (Group 1), cefotetan (Group 2), or ampicillin (Group 3) single dose antibiotic prophylaxis following umbilical cord clamping (...) . Stepwise discriminative analysis identified only last cervical dilatation as a significant predictor of endomyometritis (P = 0.006).Post-Cesarean endomyometritis occurs infrequently following single dose antibiotic prophylaxis after umbilical cord clamping. An advantage of broader spectrum antibiotics over ampicillin was not demonstrated.

2001 The Journal of maternal-fetal medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12222. A randomised controlled trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective caesarean delivery. (Abstract)

A randomised controlled trial of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective caesarean delivery. To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic administration using cefoxitin at the time of elective caesarean section significantly reduces infectious morbidity.A tertiary teaching hospital in a large urban city in South Africa.Women undergoing elective caesarean section.A prospective, double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.Four hundred and eighty women undergoing elective caesarean section had (...) cefoxitin or placebo administration after umbilical cord clamping. Postpartum complications including febrile morbidity, wound infection, endometritis, urinary tract infection, pneumonia and transient postpartum fever were recorded, as were the duration of hospital stay and the need for therapeutic antibiotics.Wound infection was the most common complication occurring in 13.3% and 12.5% of women in the placebo and cefoxitin groups, respectively. Prophylactic antibiotics did not decrease febrile

2001 BJOG Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12223. [Antibiotic prophylaxis of infective complications after cesarean section. Our experience]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic prophylaxis of infective complications after cesarean section. Our experience]. The efficacy of a single dose of antibiotic vs multiple doses of the same drug, in reducing maternal infections following the cesarean section, is evaluated.A total of 206 pregnant women undergoing elective or emergency cesarean section from 1st June 1998 to 30 June 1999, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of L'Aquila, were included in a randomized study to compare (...) the efficacy of prophylaxis with a single dose of piperacillin sodium (2 g i.v. after the umbilical cord clamping; group A) vs triple doses of the same antibiotic (2 g i.v. at 6 hourly intervals, beginning from the umbilical cord clamping; group B).The incidence of infective morbidity in group A was 7.3%, with a 2% wound infections, 1% urinary infections and 4.16% febrile morbidity. The incidence of infective morbidity in group B was not much higher (9%), with 2.7% wound infections, 1.8% urinary infections

2000 Minerva ginecologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12224. Long-Term treatment with cisapride and antibiotics in liver cirrhosis: effect on small intestinal motility, bacterial overgrowth, and liver function. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-Term treatment with cisapride and antibiotics in liver cirrhosis: effect on small intestinal motility, bacterial overgrowth, and liver function. Altered small-bowel motility, lengthening of the orocecal transit time, and small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth have been described in patients with liver cirrhosis. These changes might be related to the progressive course and poor prognosis of the disease. We investigated the effect of a long-term treatment with cisapride and an antibiotic (...) bacterial overgrowth were also investigated using the H2 breath test. Liver function was estimated with clinical and laboratory measurements (Child-Pugh score).After 6 months, both cisapride and antibiotics significantly improved fasting cyclic activity, reduced the duration of orocecal transit time, and decreased small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Cisapride administration was followed also by an increase in the amplitude of contractions. No statistically significant variations in these parameters

2001 The American journal of gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12225. Role of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing postoperative peritonitis in newly placed peritoneal dialysis catheters. (Abstract)

Role of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing postoperative peritonitis in newly placed peritoneal dialysis catheters. The role of vancomycin and other antibiotics in the treatment of acute peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is well established. However, the role of preoperative vancomycin or cephalosporins in preventing early infection in newly placed PD catheters remains controversial. We performed a prospective randomized study to examine the role of vancomycin (...) the procedure. Group III patients (83 procedures) were not administered antibiotics preoperatively for at least 1 week before the procedure. Patients were monitored for peritonitis in the following 14 days. Peritonitis developed in 1 patient (1%) in group I (vancomycin group) and 6 patients (7%) in group II (cefazolin group) compared with 10 patients (12%) in group III (control group); P = 0.02. We conclude that the use of preoperative single-dose IV vancomycin prophylaxis for permanent PD catheter

2000 American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12226. A randomized prospective study of oral versus intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis against postoperative infection after sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. (Abstract)

A randomized prospective study of oral versus intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis against postoperative infection after sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. We investigated whether oral levofloxacin was as effective as intravenous cefazolin sodium for preventing postoperative infections in patients undergoing sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible.Forty-four patients were randomized to treatment with levofloxacin or cefazolin sodium. Levofloxacin (100 mg t.d.s (...) (p = 0.322).Oral administration of levofloxacin is a simple, cost-effective and safe alternative to intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis after mandibular surgery.Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

2001 Chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12227. Randomised controlled trial of three day versus 10 day intravenous antibiotics in acute pyelonephritis: effect on renal scarring. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Randomised controlled trial of three day versus 10 day intravenous antibiotics in acute pyelonephritis: effect on renal scarring. Acute pyelonephritis often leaves children with permanent renal scarring.To compare the prevalence of scarring following initial treatment with antibiotics administered intravenously for 10 or three days.In a prospective two centre trial, 220 patients aged 3 months to 16 years with positive urine culture and acute renal lesions on initial DMSA scintigraphy, were

2001 Archives of disease in childhood Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12228. A randomised controlled trial of delayed antibiotic prescribing as a strategy for managing uncomplicated respiratory tract infection in primary care. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomised controlled trial of delayed antibiotic prescribing as a strategy for managing uncomplicated respiratory tract infection in primary care. Despite evidence that uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection (cough) does not respond appreciably to antibiotics and that bacterial resistance is increasing, general practitioners (GPs) still prescribe frequently.To assess delayed antibiotic prescribing as a strategy for reducing the unnecessary use of antibiotics for cough in primary (...) care.Open randomised controlled trial of delayed versus immediate prescribing of antibiotics.One hundred and ninety-one adult patients with uncomplicated cough in 22 Scottish practices who would have received antibiotics under the GP's usual practice were randomised to receive either an immediate prescription (92 patients) or a delayed prescription (99 patients).Delayed subjects were asked to wait a week before deciding whether to collect their prescription. Outcome measures included symptom duration

2001 British Journal of General Practice Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12229. Are antibiotics necessary in nonperforated appendicitis in children? A double blind randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Are antibiotics necessary in nonperforated appendicitis in children? A double blind randomized controlled trial. The use of antibiotics in uncomplicated appendicitis in children, remains the area of controversy. The aim of the study was to assess the necessity of antibiotic administration in nonperforated appendicitis in children.The design of the study was a double blind randomized controlled trial, with a follow-up of 4 to 20 months.Surgical Department in a University Pediatric Hospital.One (...) hundred and eighty seven out of 249 children subjected to emergency appendectomies met the inclusion criteria, with 35 eligible but not included in the study. The remaining 152 patients were randomized; 41 had complicated appendicitis, 3 other diagnosis, 108 were analyzed within 3 study groups: 1 (n = 31) no antibiotic, 2 (n = 41) one dose, 3 (n = 36) 5-day course. Open appendectomy was a surgical procedure and Ceftriaxone 1.0 g i.v. was administered. Investigated parameters were: body temperature

2001 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12230. Antibiotic treatment and baseline severity of disease in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a re-evaluation of previously published data of a placebo-controlled randomized study. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment and baseline severity of disease in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a re-evaluation of previously published data of a placebo-controlled randomized study. The study was designed to extend retrospectively the analysis of a previously reported study on chronic bronchitis patients with acute exacerbations treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or matched placebo. We retrospectively re-clustered patients on the basis of severity of baseline lung function: Cluster 1 (...) (104 patients) mean screening FEV(1)32.67+/-6.83 (SD); Cluster 2 (109 patients) mean screening FEV(1)54.12+/-5.56; Cluster 3 (122 patients) mean screening FEV(1)71.54+/-5.51. The success rate in the antibiotic group was significantly greater compared to the placebo group (P<0.001). When clinical improvement was analysed on the basis of patient re-clustering, 31.4% of Cluster 1 (severe COPD) patients treated with amoxicillin/clavulanate showed clinical improvement, whereas success was recorded

2001 Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12231. Combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and antibacterial drugs for the treatment of ventilatory associated nosocomial pneumonia. (Abstract)

Combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and antibacterial drugs for the treatment of ventilatory associated nosocomial pneumonia. In this prospective study, we aimed to investigate the role of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (rhG-CSF) supplement to antibiotherapy, for the treatment of ventilator-associated nosocomial pneumonia (VAP) in patients intubated due to acute respiratory failure. In Emergency Intensive Care Unit (EICU), 28 patients on mechanical ventilation (...) , that combination of antibacterial agents and rhG-CSF may be beneficial for the treatment of VAP.

2001 Middle East journal of anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12232. A reevaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

A reevaluation of antibiotic prophylaxis in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial. To assess the result of antibiotic prophylaxis in low-risk patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy with respect to the postoperative septic complications.One hundred and two low-risk patients were randomized into 1 of 2 treatment arms (1) cefazolin 1 g intravenously after induction of anesthesia (PA group) and (2) no prophylactic antibiotics (NONE group). Laparoscopic

2001 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12233. Long-term treatment with subantimicrobial dose doxycycline exerts no antibacterial effect on the subgingival microflora associated with adult periodontitis. (Abstract)

Long-term treatment with subantimicrobial dose doxycycline exerts no antibacterial effect on the subgingival microflora associated with adult periodontitis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether treatment with subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD), 20 mg bid, exerted an antimicrobial effect on the microflora associated with adult periodontitis.Following the approval of the protocol and informed consent forms by the respective IRBs at the University of Florida and West Virginia (...) group were significantly lower (P<0.05) than the paired placebo group during the 9-month treatment and was preceded by a significant decrease (P<0.01) in the proportion of microbiologic sample sites that bled on probing. No between- treatment differences were detected in any of the other microbial parameters.The microbial differences observed were attributed to the anticollagenase and anti-inflammatory properties of SDD and not to an antimicrobial effect.

2000 Journal of periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12234. Effects of pectin on diarrhea in critically ill tube-fed patients receiving antibiotics. (Abstract)

Effects of pectin on diarrhea in critically ill tube-fed patients receiving antibiotics. Anaerobic colonic flora are necessary for the fermentation of fiber into short-chain fatty acids and constitute the bulk of fecal mass. Lack of dietary fiber in most enteral feedings, compounded by antibiotic therapy, suppresses normal colonic metabolism, resulting in diarrhea. Pectin, a water-soluble fiber, stimulates epithelial growth in the colon and thus reduces diarrhea.Forty-four critically ill (...) patients receiving enteral nutrition and antibiotic therapy were randomized to receive fiber-containing or fiber-free tube feedings and pectin or placebo. Data on frequency, consistency, and volume of fecal output; energy (caloric) intake; and administration of specific medications were collected for 9 days. Diarrhea was defined as 2 or more days with scores of 12 or higher on the Hart and Dobb diarrhea scale.Subjects in the 4 groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, severity of illness

2000 American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12235. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. (Abstract)

The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. One-week triple therapy is currently considered the golden standard against Helicobacter pylori. However, gastrointestinal side-effects are among the major pitfalls in such regimens. Probiotic supplementation might help to prevent or reduce such drug-related manifestations.To determine whether adding the probiotic Lactobacillus GG

2001 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12236. Esomeprazole-based Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and the effect of antibiotic resistance: results of three US multicenter, double-blind trials. (Abstract)

Esomeprazole-based Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and the effect of antibiotic resistance: results of three US multicenter, double-blind trials. To determine the efficacy of once-daily esomeprazole plus antibiotics for eradication of Helicobacter pylori, to assess the effect of antibiotic resistance on eradication rate, and to define the rate of emergent resistance.Three separate randomized trials were performed in H. pylori-positive patients with a duodenal ulcer or history

2000 The American journal of gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12237. The role of topical antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing contaminated head and neck surgery with flap reconstruction. (Abstract)

The role of topical antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing contaminated head and neck surgery with flap reconstruction. Patients undergoing contaminated head and neck surgery with flap reconstruction have wound infection rates of 20% to 25% with parenteral antibiotic prophylaxis. Studies suggest that perioperative antimicrobial mouthwash reduces oropharyngeal flora and may prevent wound infections. We hypothesized that the addition of topical antibiotics to a parenteral prophylactic (...) patients were evaluated daily using predefined objective criteria.Sixty-two patients met inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The overall wound infection rate was 8.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7%-17.8%). Two of 31 patients (6.4%) who received parenteral antibiotics alone developed a wound infection compared with 3 of 31 patients (9.7%) randomly assigned to receive topical plus parenteral antibiotics. This difference was not statistically significant (P = >.05). Infection rate

2001 Laryngoscope Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12238. [Superficial pyoderma requiring oral antibiotic therapy: fusidic acid versus pristinamycin]]. (Abstract)

[Superficial pyoderma requiring oral antibiotic therapy: fusidic acid versus pristinamycin]]. This study was aimed to compare the clinical and antibacterial efficacy of fusidic acid 500 mg twice a day, per os, over 7.5 days) to pristinamycin 1 g twice a day, per os, over 10 days).Patients aged over 18, suffering from a superficial pyoderma requiring antibiotherapy and having given their informed consent were enrolled in a controlled, multicentre, double blind double dummy, parallel groups study

2001 Presse médicale (Paris, France : 1983) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12239. Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. (Abstract)

Comparison of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for hospitalized patients with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. The objective of this study was to compare the outcome of 7 versus 10 days of antibiotic therapy for inpatients with moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A prospective, randomized, double-blind study with a follow-up period of 42 days was conducted. Fifty-two veterans were treated with 2 days of cefuroxime (...) at 750 mg intravenously every 8 hours followed by group 1, 8 days oral therapy, and group 2, 5 days oral therapy followed by 3 days of placebo. Oral therapy consisted of cefuroxime axetil at 500 mg every 12 hours. No difference was seen in cure rates: 20 of 22 (90.9%) patients in group 1 and 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients in group 2. There were no late recurrences. Potential US cost-savings is $27.2 million. Inpatients with moderately severe CAP can be treated with 2 days of intravenous antibiotics

1999 American journal of therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12240. A 2-step non-surgical procedure and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of rapidly progressive periodontitis. (Abstract)

A 2-step non-surgical procedure and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of rapidly progressive periodontitis. In the last few years knowledge about periodontal infections has increased enormously, nevertheless practitioners are still seeking guidelines for suitable treatment concepts.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of doxycycline, metronidazole, and clindamycin used adjunctively in a 2-step nonsurgical procedure in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP (...) ). The first step included scaling, root planing, and polishing (SRP) in each quadrant using 4 to 5 visits. The second step included full-mouth enhanced root planing (RP) and wound dressing in 1 or 2 visits after SRP and the beginning of antibiotic therapy. Forty-eight patients (mean age 32.4 years) with generalized RPP, with an average of 16 sites with probing depths (PD) deeper than 8 mm, and high counts of Porphyromonas gingivalis were randomly assigned to 4 different groups: group 1 (doxycycline) n

2001 Journal of periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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