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antibiotics

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12201. Are antibiotics necessary in the treatment of locally infected ingrown toenails? (Abstract)

Are antibiotics necessary in the treatment of locally infected ingrown toenails? A wide variety of generalists and specialists treat locally infected ingrown toenails, with perhaps the most common treatment regimen including resection of the nail border coupled with oral antibiotics.To determine whether oral antibiotic therapy is beneficial as an adjunct to the phenol chemical matrixectomy in the treatment of infected ingrown toenails.We prospectively enrolled healthy patients with infected (...) ingrown toenails. Each patient was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups that received either 1 week of antibiotics and a chemical matrixectomy simultaneously (group 1), antibiotics for 1 week and then a matrixectomy (group 2), or a matrixectomy alone (group 3).Institutional ambulatory outpatient clinic.Fifty-four healthy patients with infected ingrown toenails were studied. Patients with immunocompromised states, peripheral vascular disease, or cellulitis proximal to the hallux interphalangeal joint

2000 Archives of family medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12202. Helicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer: three-day antibiotic eradication regimen. (Abstract)

Helicobacter pylori-positive duodenal ulcer: three-day antibiotic eradication regimen. The most widely used treatments for ulcer healing and Helicobacter pylori eradication consist of a 1-2 week regimen of a proton pump inhibitor plus two or three antimicrobials.To evaluate the efficacy, safety, cost, and tolerance of a three-day regimen with three antibiotics vs. a 10-day treatment with a proton pump inhibitor or vs. a ranitidine bismuth citrate triple therapy.Two hundred and twenty-one (...) observed, relating to the eradication and healing of ulcers, between RACM and either the RAC or OAC regimens.The three-day antibiotic therapy with amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole in addition to ranitidine bismuth citrate is a very effective anti-H. pylori regimen.

2000 Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12203. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia. (Abstract)

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral antibiotics in pediatric oncology patients at low-risk with fever and neutropenia. Fever combined with neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients has traditionally been managed in the hospital with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics until there is documented neutrophil recovery. Recent evidence has suggested that patients at "low-risk" can be discharged from the hospital before neutrophil recovery. Whether oral antibiotics are required at the time (...) patients (14%; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 2%-25%) in the antibiotic arm and two patients (6%; 95% CI; 0%-13%) in the placebo arm were readmitted to the hospital with recurrent fever while still neutropenic (P = 0.43). One patient randomized to the placebo arm had a positive blood culture result on readmission, which responded to appropriate intravenous antibiotics. All of the readmissions were uneventful and there were no fatalities. The average cost per episode of fever and neutropenia was $1,821

2000 Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12204. The effect of antibacterial soap with 1.5% triclocarban on Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis. (Abstract)

The effect of antibacterial soap with 1.5% triclocarban on Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis. This double-blind study determined whether daily bathing with an antibacterial soap would reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin and result in clinical improvement of atopic dermatitis. For 9 weeks, 50 patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis bathed daily with either an antimicrobial soap containing 1.5% triclocarban or the placebo soap. They also used (...) a nonmedicated moisturizer and 0.025% triamcinolone acetonide cream as needed, but the availability of the corticosteroid cream was discontinued after 6 weeks. The antimicrobial soap regimen caused significantly greater improvement in the severity and extent of skin lesions than the placebo soap regimen, which correlated with reductions both in S aureus in patients with positive cultures at baseline and in total aerobic organisms. Outcome measures included reductions in S aureus, total aerobic organisms

2000 Cutis; cutaneous medicine for the practitioner Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12205. A prospective, randomised trial of prophylactic antibiotics versus bag extraction in the prophylaxis of wound infection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A prospective, randomised trial of prophylactic antibiotics versus bag extraction in the prophylaxis of wound infection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Septic complications are rare following laparoscopic cholecystectomy if prophylactic antibiotics are given, as demonstrated in previous studies. Antibiotic treatment may be unnecessary and, therefore, undesirable, so we compared two forms of prophylaxis: a cephalosporin antibiotic and bag extraction of the dissected gallbladder. A total of 76 (...) patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to either receive an antibiotic or to have their gallbladder removed from the abdomen in a plastic bag. Complicated cases were excluded. There was a total of 6 wound infections (7.9%), 3 in each of the study groups. All these were associated with skin commensals. There were no other septic complications. Bacteriological studies grouped the organisms isolated from the bile and the wound as potential pathogens and likely commensals. A total

2000 Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12206. Effect of Lactobacillus GG supplementation on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a pilot study. (Abstract)

Effect of Lactobacillus GG supplementation on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a pilot study. One-week triple therapy is currently regarded as the reference of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment. However, antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects are among the major pitfalls of such regimens. Probiotic supplementation may be regarded as a therapeutic tool to prevent or reduce these troublesome drug-related

2001 Digestion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12207. Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia after dental extractions. (Abstract)

Topical antibiotic prophylaxis for bacteremia after dental extractions. Current prophylaxis for endocarditis in patients undergoing dental procedures consists of oral administration of amoxicillin. There is concern that the risk of anaphylaxis from systemically administered antibiotics might approach the incidence of endocarditis. Emergence of resistance among bacteria is also favored by systemically administered antibiotics. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of topical

2001 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12208. The effect of postsurgical antibiotics on the healing of intrabony defects following treatment with enamel matrix proteins. (Abstract)

The effect of postsurgical antibiotics on the healing of intrabony defects following treatment with enamel matrix proteins. Regenerative treatment with enamel matrix proteins has been shown to promote healing in intrabony defects. However, up to now various postoperative antibiotic regimens have been used in combination with enamel matrix proteins and therefore it cannot be excluded that the results may also be attributable to the effect of the antibiotic treatment. The aim of this randomized (...) , controlled, blinded, clinical investigation was to determine the effect of postsurgical administration of antibiotics on the healing of intrabony periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins.Thirty-four patients each of whom exhibited one deep intrabony defect were randomly treated with either enamel matrix proteins plus antibiotics (test: EMD + AB) or with enamel matrix proteins alone (control: EMD). The antibiotic regimen consisted of a combination of 3 x 375 mg amoxicillin and 3 x 250 mg

2001 Journal of periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12209. [Antibiotic prophylaxis for high risk patients undergoing cholecystectomy]. (Abstract)

[Antibiotic prophylaxis for high risk patients undergoing cholecystectomy]. An open, randomised clinical trial was performed on 435 high risk patients who underwent open cholecystectomy between 1 = January 1993. and 31. December 1995. The patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 (AMOX/CLAV, N = 179) was treated with 1.2 g i.v. amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, the patients in Group 2 (COMPARATOR, N = 164) were given other antibiotics commonly used for prophylaxis in biliary surgery (...) (cefamandole, cefuroxime, cefotaxim). Group 3 (CONTROL, N = 92) contained patients without any risk factors for infectious complication. In this group we did not use antibiotic prophylaxis. The results were analysed with Student t, and x2 methods. The wound infection rate in Group 1 was 2.76% versus 5.48% in Group 2. The difference was significant if the patients were older than 65 years or the preoperative hospitalisation was longer than 5 days. The concentration of amoxycillin/calavulanic acid

2000 Magyar sebészet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12210. Perioperative antibiotic use in high-risk penetrating hollow viscus injury: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial of 24 hours versus 5 days. (Abstract)

Perioperative antibiotic use in high-risk penetrating hollow viscus injury: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-control trial of 24 hours versus 5 days. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and therapeutic efficacy of a 24-hour versus 5-day course of ampicillin/sulbactam for the prevention of postoperative infections in high-risk patients sustaining hollow viscus injury from penetrating abdominal trauma.A total of 317 patients from four Level I trauma centers (...) with penetrating abdominal injuries and at least one hollow viscus perforation each received one preoperative and three postoperative doses of ampicillin/sulbactam 3 g intravenously. After receiving 24 hours of unblinded ampicillin/sulbactam, patients were then randomized into one of two groups. Group 1 received 4 additional days of blinded ampicillin/sulbactam (5 days total of antibiotic), and Group 2 received 4 days of placebo (24 hours of antibiotic). Patients were assessed postoperatively for occurrence

2000 Journal of Trauma Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12211. [Adjuvant antibiotic therapy as a 2-step treatment concept in early-onset periodontitis: a strategy for eradication of bacteria that cause periodontitis]. (Abstract)

[Adjuvant antibiotic therapy as a 2-step treatment concept in early-onset periodontitis: a strategy for eradication of bacteria that cause periodontitis]. The periodontal region is a source of gram-negative bacterial infection. The pathogens involved have recently also been demonstrated in atheromatous plaques. They may increase the risk of myocardial infarction. In this study a strategy for eradicating periodontal bacteria and thus healing in patients with periodontal pockets and advanced (...) destruction of alveolar bone was examined.Initial periodontal status was documented in 36 patients with periodontitis (24 women, 12 men) who were then randomly assigned to one of three groups. Those in two of the groups were given either metronidazole or doxycycline orally as adjuvant treatment, while the third group received no antibiotics. Patients in all groups were treated according to a two-step procedure. In step 1, extensive supra- and subgingival plaques and concrements were removed. In step 2

2000 Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12212. Neonatal pneumonia: comparison of 4 vs 7 days of antibiotic therapy in term and near-term infants. (Abstract)

Neonatal pneumonia: comparison of 4 vs 7 days of antibiotic therapy in term and near-term infants. To compare a 4-day course of antibiotic therapy to a 7-day course in selected term and near-term neonates with pneumonia.The diagnosis of pneumonia was made in neonates admitted to the normal Newborn Nursery (NBN) who later had signs of respiratory distress and whose chest radiographs were consistent with pneumonia. Infants were excluded if any of the following was present: moderate or thick (...) meconium-stained amniotic fluid, prior antibiotic therapy > 24 hours, or need for supplemental oxygen > 8 hours. Infants who were asymptomatic after 48 hours of antibiotic therapy were prospectively randomized to a 4-day group (n = 35) or a 7-day group (n = 38). Infants in the 4-day group were observed in the hospital for 24 hours following cessation of antibiotics and were seen in follow up within several days of discharge.The groups were comparable with regard to demographic factors, duration

2001 Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12213. The antibacterial activity of tea in vitro and in vivo (in patients with impetigo contagiosa). (Abstract)

%) and 2 of a combination of S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (5.7%). The antibacterial effect of tea liquor (lotion) against S. aureus proved very effective. Antibiotic sensitivity was done for all bacterial isolates of S. aureus. PART II (in vivo): The antibacterial effects of tea liquor and ointment were tested by treating 64 patients with impetigo contagiosa. Tea ointment was very effective with a cure rate of 81.3%. Forty patients were taken as controls and divided into two groups. The first (...) The antibacterial activity of tea in vitro and in vivo (in patients with impetigo contagiosa). A total number of 104 patients with impetigo contagiosa was included in this study. They were 47 females (45.2%) and 57 males (54.8%). Their ages ranged from one month to 40 years with a median of 4 years. This study was divided into two parts: PART I (in vitro): Thirty-five patients were swabbed to determine the microbiology of impetigo contagiosa which included 33 isolates of pure S. aureus (94.3

2000 The Journal of dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12214. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of lactating cows with high somatic cell counts in their milk. (Abstract)

A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of lactating cows with high somatic cell counts in their milk. To determine the effectiveness of treatment of lactating cows with high somatic cell counts in milk.Randomised clinical trial.Single pooled quarter samples of milk were obtained from cows with somatic cell counts above 500,000 cells/mL on fifty farms. Milk samples were cultured for known mastitis bacterial pathogens. Cows were randomly allocated to treated

2000 Australian veterinary journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12215. The antibacterial effect of topical anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival flora. (Abstract)

The antibacterial effect of topical anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival flora. To investigate the antibacterial effect of topical anesthetic proparacaine on conjunctival flora.One hundred and forty-four eyes of 72 patients awaiting cataract surgery were included in the study. A commercially available solution of proparacaine, preserved with benzalkonium chloride 0.01%, was instilled in one eye of all subjects while the vehicle solution, including the same concentration of preservative (...) and the vehicle eyedrops, four eyes (10%) and 12 eyes (33.3%) had culture-positive conjunctival smears, respectively. Proparacaine significantly reduced the number of culture-positive eyes (p = 0.0003), in contrast to the vehicle (p = 0.21).A topical anesthetic, proparacaine, demonstrates antibacterial effects on the conjunctival flora.

1999 International ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12216. [Combination therapy of antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin]. (Abstract)

[Combination therapy of antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin]. A large scale multicenter randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in combination with IPM/CS and AMK in 504 evaluable patients who did not respond by 3 day therapy with beta-lactum and aminoglucoside. Immunoglobulin 5 g was administered 3 days to the patients allocated to immunoglobulin group. A completely automatic computer evaluation was performed according (...) to the criteria determined by the committee. The response rate was 61.5% in immunoglobulin group and 47.3% in control group(p < 0.001). Intravenous immunoglobulin is considered effective for severe infection when used as combination therapy with antibiotics.

2001 Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12217. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent post-abortal upper genital tract infection in women with bacterial vaginosis: randomised controlled trial. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent post-abortal upper genital tract infection in women with bacterial vaginosis: randomised controlled trial. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women undergoing first trimester suction termination of pregnancy and to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole in reducing the risk of post abortal pelvic infection in women with bacterial vaginosis.Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.Two teaching hospitals and one district general (...) hospital.Two hundred and seventy-three women with bacterial vaginosis undergoing termination of pregnancy.Women with bacterial vaginosis, diagnosed using modified Spiegel's criteria, were individually randomised to receive either a 2 g metronidazole suppository or identical placebo per-operatively. Participants, doctors and investigators were blinded to treatment allocation. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about post-operative symptoms, visits to the general practitioner, antibiotic

2001 BJOG Controlled trial quality: predicted high

12218. Comparison of ceftibuten vs. amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as antibiotic prophylaxis in cholecystectomy and/or biliary tract surgery. (Abstract)

Comparison of ceftibuten vs. amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as antibiotic prophylaxis in cholecystectomy and/or biliary tract surgery. A randomized, comparative, prospective clinical trial was carried out at a tertiary care center to compare the efficacy of two antibiotic regimens in the prophylaxis of postoperative infection in patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. One hundred patients undergoing cholecystectomy or biliary tract exploration were randomly allocated to one of the following (...) antibiotic regimens: the standard regimen of three doses of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1000/200 mg) given by intravenous infusion, or a single dose of ceftibuten (400 mg) given orally. Patients were monitored during their stay in the hospital and over a 2 week period as outpatients. Fifty adult patients were included in each group. Mean age was 49 years, and sex distribution was 82 women and 18 men. The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics and comorbidity. There were no cases

2001 Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12219. Oral cefixime is similar to continued intravenous antibiotics in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral cefixime is similar to continued intravenous antibiotics in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic children with cancer. Empiric oral antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenic cancer patients has been suggested as a means to decrease hospitalization, but the safety of this approach has not been adequately studied in children. We compared continued iv antibiotic therapy with switching treatment to orally administered cefixime in a group of selected febrile neutropenic children (...) for whom blood cultures were sterile after 48 h of incubation. Two hundred episodes of febrile neutropenia were studied (156 patients), and 100 episodes were randomized to receive each treatment. Failure to respond to therapy was defined by documented or suspected bacterial infection, recurrent fever, or discontinuation of assigned therapy for any reason before neutropenia resolved. Rates of treatment failure were similar in the oral cefixime group (28%) and in the iv antibiotic group (27%; P=1.0

2001 Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12220. A randomized controlled trial of point-of-care evidence to improve the antibiotic prescribing practices for otitis media in children. (Abstract)

A randomized controlled trial of point-of-care evidence to improve the antibiotic prescribing practices for otitis media in children. Prescribing practices for otitis media are not consistent with current evidence-based recommendations.To determine whether point-of-care evidence delivery regarding the use and duration of antibiotics for otitis media decreases the duration of therapy from 10 days and decreases the frequency of prescriptions written.Randomized, controlled trial.Primary care (...) pediatric clinic affiliated with university training program. Intervention. A point-of-care evidence-based message system presenting real time evidence to providers based on their prescribing practice for otitis media.Proportion of prescriptions for otitis media that were for <10 days and frequency with which antibiotics were prescribed.Intervention providers had a 34% greater reduction in the proportion of time they prescribed antibiotics for <10 days. Intervention providers were less likely

2001 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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