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101. Can post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy be completely done away with in the Indian setting? A prospective randomised study. (Full text)

Can post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy be completely done away with in the Indian setting? A prospective randomised study. Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has low risk for post-operative infectious complications; still most clinicians use persistent post-operative prophylactic antibiotics out of habit, tradition, or simply as defensive practice due to evolving medicolegal implications of a large number of surgeries being showcased (...) in the presence of positive bile culture (Group A, N = 7 vs. Group B, N = 3). An operative time of greater than 60 min was found to be associated with increased surgical site infection (P = 0. 0006).Single dose of ceftriaxone at the time of induction is adequate prophylaxis following elective LC even in the rural/semi-urban Indian setting and routine continued administration of antibiotic should be abandoned as it contributes to adverse reactions, drug resistance and unnecessary financial burden.

2019 Journal of minimal access surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

102. Exploring the Effectiveness of Team-based Enablement Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing within a Psychiatric Hospital. (Abstract)

Exploring the Effectiveness of Team-based Enablement Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing within a Psychiatric Hospital. Background: Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of many types of infections. Infection occurs more frequently in patients diagnosed with psychiatric illness due to a number of risk factors. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common infections in this patient population. Currently, there is little information (...) to educational interventions, and 2) whether there is a relationship between different modes of educational interventions and increased knowledge attainment and retention among healthcare clinicians regarding UTI treatment. This study also sought to determine if 3) health-team teaching used as an enablement method improves antibiotic prescribing and if 4) the number of appropriate UTI treatment regimens increased following educational intervention compared to baseline (prior to educational intervention

2019 Innovations in clinical neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

103. A prospective randomized comparative study of targeted versus empirical prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infective complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. (Full text)

A prospective randomized comparative study of targeted versus empirical prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infective complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. It is established that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents infection following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. This study compares the infective complications in transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) in empirical versus targeted prophylactic antibiotics.Urine and rectal swabs were obtained (...) prior to TRPB. They were randomized into targeted antibiotic (TA) and empirical antibiotic (EA) groups. TA had prophylactic antibiotics according to rectal swab culture, whereas EA had the standard parenteral ciprofloxacin. They were followed up weekly for 4 weeks. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare categorical variables, Student's "t"-test was used to compare means of numerical variables, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.One hundred patients were studied

2019 Annals of African medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

104. [The question about the topical antibiotic therapy of acute rhinosinusitis]. (Abstract)

[The question about the topical antibiotic therapy of acute rhinosinusitis]. Presented the results of the clinical study of 30 patients with moderate rhinosinusitis (13 (43.3%) men, 17 (56.7%) women, age from 18 to 68 years). Among those patients, the inflammation of one paranasal sinus was observed in 7 (23.3%) cases, polysinusitis was observed in 23 (76. 7%) cases. All patients were randomized into 2 groups of 15 people. In both groups, patients received systemic antibiotic therapy, nasal (...) irrigation therapy, and NSAIDs. In the control group, topical decongestants were used; in the experimental group the antimicrobial drug Polydexa with phenylephrine was used as a local therapy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Polydexa with phenylephrine in the complex treatment of moderate acute rhinosinusitis. The evaluation criteria were statistically significant comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of both groups. Confirmed the anti-inflammatory

2019 Vestnik otorinolaringologii Controlled trial quality: uncertain

105. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in low-income countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the AIMS trial. (Full text)

Antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in low-income countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the AIMS trial. There is ongoing debate on the clinical benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis for reducing pelvic infection after miscarriage surgery. We aimed to study the cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in low-income countries.We did an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 3412 women recruited (...) to the AIMS trial, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Economic evaluation was done from a health-care-provider perspective on the basis of the outcome of cost per pelvic infection avoided within 2 weeks of surgery. Pelvic infection was broadly defined by the presence of clinical features or the clinically identified need to administer

2019 The Lancet. Global health Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

106. Analysis of ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics in infant pneumonia treatment. (Abstract)

Analysis of ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics in infant pneumonia treatment. To observe and analyze the specific nursing pattern for ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics in infant pneumonia treatment, 200 children with pneumonia treated in our hospital were enrolled as the study subjects. All the patients were treated with ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics. The children were divided into a reference group treated with general conventional nursing and a study (...) in the study group, P<0.05. In infant pneumonia treatment with ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics, targeted nursing patterns should be adopted to improve overall treatment efficacy.

2019 Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

107. The influence of timing of Maternal administration of Antibiotics during cesarean section on the intestinal Microbial colonization in Infants (MAMI-trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (Full text)

The influence of timing of Maternal administration of Antibiotics during cesarean section on the intestinal Microbial colonization in Infants (MAMI-trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. A disturbance in the early colonisation of the gut by microorganisms is associated with an aberrant innate immune system and a variety of clinical conditions later in life. Several factors are considered to influence this initial colonisation, including maternally administered antibiotics (...) during pregnancy and delivery. Recent revisions to international obstetric guidelines have resulted in the exposure of all infants born by caesarean section (CS) to broad-spectrum antibiotics perinatally. To date, the consequences of these new guidelines on neonatal gut colonisation and the associated short- and long-term health implications have not yet been addressed. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the timing of antibiotic administration during CS to the mother

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

108. Re: Continuous Low-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomised, Open-Label Trial. (Abstract)

Re: Continuous Low-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomised, Open-Label Trial. 31021292 2019 07 26 2019 07 26 1527-3792 202 2 2019 08 The Journal of urology J. Urol. Re: Continuous Low-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomised, Open-Label Trial. 191 10.1097/JU.0000000000000302 Schaeffer Edward M EM eng Journal Article Comment 2019 07 08 United States J Urol 0376374 0022-5347 (...) Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):957-968 30037647 Adult Antibiotic Prophylaxis Humans Research Design Urinary Catheterization Urinary Tract Infections 2019 4 26 6 0 2019 7 28 6 0 2019 4 26 6 0 ppublish 31021292 10.1097/JU.0000000000000302

2019 The Journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

109. The efficacy of a non-leaching antibacterial central venous catheter - a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. (Full text)

The efficacy of a non-leaching antibacterial central venous catheter - a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Antimicrobial coatings of central venous catheters (CVC) have the potential to reduce the risk of infectious complications. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a catheter with a non-leaching antimicrobial coating against catheter colonization and bloodstream infections (BSI).The study was conducted in two centers using a prospective, randomized, double-blind (...) of microbiologically confirmed catheter associated infections were similar (1.4% vs. 1.9%, P=0.7521), the coated CVC showed a significantly lower incidence of BSI (2.0% vs. 6.5%, P=0.0081) and a significantly lower mean incidence of BSI per 1000 catheter days (3.2 vs. 8.3, P=0.0356).The non-leaching antibacterial coating of the protective catheter was effective in reducing the incidence of BSI but not the rate of catheter colonization. However, the incidence of BSI is a better surrogate marker for the risk

2019 Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

110. Antibiotic irrigation during pancreatoduodenectomy to prevent infection and pancreatic fistula: A randomized controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Antibiotic irrigation during pancreatoduodenectomy to prevent infection and pancreatic fistula: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Surgical site infection affects 25% of patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of intraperitoneal antibiotic irrigation in decreasing infection and pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy.Patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy were randomized (1:1 ratio) to intraperitoneal (...) antibiotic (polymyxin B, 500,000 units/L) irrigation or 0.9% NaCl irrigation. All patients received 1 dose of standard parenteral antibiotics within 1 hour of incision. The trial was powered to detect a 15% difference in any surgical site infection (primary endpoint) within 30 days after pancreatoduodenectomy.One hundred ninety patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy were randomized: 95 to antibiotic irrigation and 95 to saline irrigation. Groups were well matched regarding demographics, diagnosis

2019 Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

111. [Preliminary study of the antibacterial effect on the conjunctival sac and the influence on the corneal epithelium of domestic 5% povidone-iodine before cataract extraction]. (Abstract)

[Preliminary study of the antibacterial effect on the conjunctival sac and the influence on the corneal epithelium of domestic 5% povidone-iodine before cataract extraction]. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and adverse reactions of 5% povidone-iodine in removing bacteria from the conjunctival sac with different durations. Methods: Randomized controlled study. A total of 420 patients who underwent cataract surgery in Daping Hospital, Army Medical University from December 2017 to June 2018

2019 [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

112. The effect of a rapid molecular blood test on the use of antibiotics for nosocomial sepsis: a randomized clinical trial. (Full text)

The effect of a rapid molecular blood test on the use of antibiotics for nosocomial sepsis: a randomized clinical trial. Appropriate use of antimicrobials is essential to improve outcomes in sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of a rapid molecular blood test-SeptiFast (SF) reduces the antibiotic consumption through early de-escalation in patients with nosocomial sepsis compared with conventional blood cultures (BCs).This was a prospective, randomized, superiority (...) was antimicrobial consumption during the first 14 days after randomization.A total of 200 patients were included (100 in each group). The intention to treat analysis found no significant differences in median antibiotic consumption. In the subgroup of patients with positive SF and blood cultures (19 and 25 respectively), we found a statistically significant reduction in the median antimicrobial consumption which was 1429 (1071-2000) days of therapy (DOT)/1000 patients-day in the intervention group and 1889

2019 Journal of intensive care Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

113. Health-related quality of life of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy plus or minus prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the number of pneumonias for locally advanced head and neck cancer, the PANTAP study. (Full text)

Health-related quality of life of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy plus or minus prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the number of pneumonias for locally advanced head and neck cancer, the PANTAP study. The recent PANTAP trial showed that administration of prophylactic antibiotics in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LAHNC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy reduced fever, hospitalization and costs. The current study describes the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on health (...) -related quality of life (HRQoL), another secondary endpoint of the trial.In this multicenter randomized trial, LAHNC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy received prophylactic antibiotics or standard care. HRQoL was assessed at baseline (before chemoradiotherapy), day 28 of chemoradiotherapy (one day before starting prophylactic antibiotics), the final day of radiotherapy, and 3.5 months after the end of chemoradiotherapy, using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC

2019 Oral oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

114. Prophylactic Vitamin K Administration in Neonates on Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Prophylactic Vitamin K Administration in Neonates on Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. To compare the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency after intramuscular vitamin K or no treatment in neonates with sepsis on prolonged (>7 days) antibiotic therapy.Open label randomized controlled trial.Level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).Neonates with first episode of sepsis on antibiotics for ≥7 days were included. Neonates with clinical bleeding, vitamin K prior to start (...) of antibiotic therapy (except the birth dose), cholestasis or prenatally diagnosed bleeding disorder were excluded.Randomized to receive 1 mg vitamin K (n=41) or no vitamin K (n=39) on the 7th day of antibiotic therapy.Vitamin K deficiency defined as Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence (PIVKA-II) >2 ng/mL after 7 ± 2 days of enrolment.The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency was 100% (n=80) at enrolment and it remained 100% even after 7 ± 2 days of enrolment in both the groups.Neonates receiving prolonged

2019 Indian pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

115. The use of a tetracycline drain reduces alveolar osteitis: a randomized prospective trial of third molar surgery under local anesthetics and without the use of systemic antibiotics. (Full text)

The use of a tetracycline drain reduces alveolar osteitis: a randomized prospective trial of third molar surgery under local anesthetics and without the use of systemic antibiotics. Our aim was to investigate the effect of an oxytetracycline-impregnated gauze drain on the incidence of alveolar osteitis (AO) and postoperative pain during the first week after mandibular third molar surgery.Two hundred consecutive patients undergoing third molar surgery under local anesthesia were randomized (...) into a drain group (n = 100), with an oxytetracycline-impregnated drain placed in the extraction socket, and a control group (n = 100). An experienced surgeon performed the surgery. Systemic antibiotics were not used.The incidence of AO was 23% in the control group and 5% in the drain group (P < .001). The risk of developing AO was approximately 6 times higher in the control group, and females had a 2.5 times higher risk compared with males. Patients in the control group had significantly more pain

2019 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

116. The efficiency of extended postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

The efficiency of extended postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Postoperative antibiotics are commonly administered in orthognathic surgery, despite the fact that there is no consensus regarding their efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of postoperative antibiotics in orthognathic surgery by conducting a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo (...) ) and temperature were similar for both groups. Serous discharge was observed in two patients (both in the placebo group), and one of them required surgical intervention. Overall, infection rate was similar in both groups (p-value > 0.1). To conclude, administration of postoperative antibiotics in healthy, young patients undergoing orthognathic surgery did not show a significant advantage in reducing surgical infection rate.Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published

2019 Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

117. Editorial Comment from Dr Togo to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Editorial Comment from Dr Togo to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 30636346 2019 03 03 1442-2042 26 3 2019 Mar International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Int. J. Urol. Editorial Comment from Dr Togo to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 398-399 10.1111/iju.13898 Togo Yoshikazu Y Department of Urology

2019 International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

118. Clinical antibacterial effectiveness and biocompatibility of gaseous ozone after incomplete caries removal. (Abstract)

Clinical antibacterial effectiveness and biocompatibility of gaseous ozone after incomplete caries removal. To evaluate local effect of gaseous ozone on bacteria in deep carious lesions after incomplete caries removal, using chlorhexidine as control, and to investigate its effect on pulp vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD).Antibacterial effect was evaluated in 48 teeth with diagnosed deep carious lesion. After

2019 Clinical oral investigations Controlled trial quality: uncertain

119. Re: Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole versus no Treatment after Mid-to-Distal Hypospadias Repair: A Prospective, Randomized Study. (Abstract)

Re: Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole versus no Treatment after Mid-to-Distal Hypospadias Repair: A Prospective, Randomized Study. 30577356 2019 01 18 2019 01 18 1527-3792 201 1 2019 01 The Journal of urology J. Urol. Re: Antibiotic Prophylaxis with Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole versus no Treatment after Mid-to-Distal Hypospadias Repair: A Prospective, Randomized Study. 19 10.1097/01.ju.0000550134.88998.8b Canning Douglas A DA eng Journal Article Comment United States J

2019 The Journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

120. Point-of-care CRP matters: normal CRP levels reduce immediate antibiotic prescribing for acutely ill children in primary care: a cluster randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

Point-of-care CRP matters: normal CRP levels reduce immediate antibiotic prescribing for acutely ill children in primary care: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Antibiotics are prescribed too often in acutely ill children in primary care. We examined whether a Point-of-Care (POC) C-reactive Protein (CRP) test influences the family physicians' (FP) prescribing rate and adherence to the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) practice guidelines.Cluster randomized controlled trial.Primary care (...) , Flanders, Belgium.Half of the children with non-severe acute infections (random allocation of practices to perform POC CRP or not) and all children at risk for serious infection were tested with POC CRP.Acutely ill children consulting their FP.Immediate antibiotic prescribing.2844 infectious episodes recruited by 133 FPs between 15 February 2013 and 28 February 2014 were analyzed. A mixed logistic regression analysis was performed. Compared to episodes in which CRP was not tested, the mere performing

2019 Scandinavian journal of primary health care Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

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