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81. Endodontic treatment of chronically infected primary teeth using triple antibiotic paste: An (Full text)

Endodontic treatment of chronically infected primary teeth using triple antibiotic paste: An Maintenance of primary dentition is imperative for the development of arch form, esthetics, function, mastication, and normal eruption of permanent teeth. Premature loss can cause various problems such as ectopic eruption, space loss for the successor permanent teeth, alterations in speech, and impairment of function. Hence, decayed primary teeth should not be extracted and treated whenever possible

2019 Journal of conservative dentistry : JCD Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

82. Effects of antibacterial photodynamic therapy on salivary mutans streptococci in 5- to 6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries. (Abstract)

Effects of antibacterial photodynamic therapy on salivary mutans streptococci in 5- to 6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (A-PDT) has been shown to kill oral bacteria in the planktonic culture, dental plaque, and biofilm. This study sought to assess the antimicrobial effect of A-PDT with toluidine blue O (TBO) and diode laser on salivary mutans streptococci in 5-6-year-olds with severe early childhood caries (SECC). This case-control study (...) , and paired comparisons with least square difference and Tukey's test. Bacterial count significantly decreased on days 1 and 3, and 1 and 2 weeks after the second intervention. Bacterial count also decreased following the use of TBO and laser separately, but these reductions were not significant (P > 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, antimicrobial efficacy of TBO + laser was higher than that of diode laser or TBO alone. Durability of treatment increased with double-dose therapy. This modality

2019 Lasers in medical science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

83. Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on liver abscesses, fecal microbiome, and resistome in feedlot cattle raised without antibiotics. (Full text)

Effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on liver abscesses, fecal microbiome, and resistome in feedlot cattle raised without antibiotics. Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle form secondary to high concentrate feeds and rumen acidosis. Antimicrobial drugs are commonly included in cattle feed for prevention of liver abscesses, but concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance have increased the need for alternative treatments. A block randomized clinical trial was conducted (...) to evaluate the effects of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) on liver abscesses, fecal microbiomes, and resistomes in cattle raised without antibiotics in a Colorado feedlot. At enrollment, steers (n = 4,689) were sorted, by weight and source, into 2 pens comprising a block (n = 14 blocks, 28 pens); pens were randomly allocated to either the control group or the treatment group, where the diet was supplemented with SCFP. Prior to harvest, composited feces were collected

2019 Scientific reports Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

84. Effectiveness of antibacterial prophylaxis during induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of antibacterial prophylaxis during induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatric patients receiving induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk of developing life-threatening infections. We investigated whether uniform antibacterial guidelines, including mandatory antibacterial prophylaxis in afebrile patients during induction, decreases the incidence of microbiologically documented (...) bacteremia.Between 2012 and 2015, 230 patients with newly diagnosed ALL (aged 1-21) were enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 11-001 (DFCI 11-001). Induction therapy, regardless of risk group, included vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and PEG-asparaginase. Afebrile patients received fluoroquinolone prophylaxis at the initiation of induction and those presenting with fever received broad-spectrum antibiotics; antibiotics were continued until blood count recovery

2019 Pediatric blood & cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain

85. Protocol for a comparison study of 1-day (single dose) versus 2-day prophylactic antibiotic administration in Holmium Laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP): a randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

Protocol for a comparison study of 1-day (single dose) versus 2-day prophylactic antibiotic administration in Holmium Laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP): a randomized controlled trial. Background: The best method of antimicrobial prophylaxis administration for surgical site infection (SSI) in transurethral holmium laser resection and enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP)/bipolar transurethral enucleation (TUEB) remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare one-day and two (...) -day cefazolin in a randomized 2 nd-phase study to help establish a protocol with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for SSI prevention. Methods: Patients undergoing HoLEP/TUEB for benign prostate hyperplasia without preoperative pyuria will be enrolled and randomized to receive prophylactic antibiotic administration for HoLEP/TUEB in two groups, 1-day (single dose) cefazolin and 2-day cefazolin. The primary endpoint is the occurrence rate of postoperative urinary tract infection or urogenital

2019 F1000Research Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

86. Antibiotic stewardship program in Intensive Care Unit: First report from Iran. (Abstract)

Antibiotic stewardship program in Intensive Care Unit: First report from Iran. Few data regarding antibiotic stewardship programs in critically ill patients are available. In the present study, the consequence of changing an empirical antibiotic regimen from a carbapenem (meropenem) to a noncarbapenem antibiotic (piperacillin-tazobactam) was evaluated in critically ill patients with a suspicion of sepsis.This open-label randomized clinical trial was conducted during May 2015-January 2017 (...) at the general Intensive Care Unit of the Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran, Iran. In this study, a carbapenem (meropenem) or a noncarbapenem (piperacillin-tazobactam) antibiotic was considered as an empirical antibiotic regimen in 100 critically ill patients with a suspicion of sepsis. Clinical response and bacterial eradication were defined as primary and secondary outcomes of the study, respectively. Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and independent sample t-tests were used for comparing variables between

2019 International journal of critical illness and injury science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

87. Converting habits of antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections in German primary care - study protocol of the cluster-randomized controlled CHANGE-3 trial. (Full text)

Converting habits of antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections in German primary care - study protocol of the cluster-randomized controlled CHANGE-3 trial. The overuse of antibiotics is a major cause for the worldwide rise of antibiotic resistance. Although it is well known that acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are mainly caused by viruses and are often self limiting, antibiotics are too frequently prescribed in primary care. CHANGE-3 examines whether a complex intervention (...) focusing on improving communication and provision of prescribing feedback reduces antibiotic use in patients suffering from ARTI.The CHANGE-3 trial is a cluster-randomized controlled trial nested within a web-based public campaign conducted in two regions in Germany. A total of 114 medical practices will be included. Practices randomized to the intervention will receive a practice-specific antibiotic-prescription feedback and an educational outreach visit. During the visit the whole practice team

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

88. Metronidazole in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infection in high-risk hospitalised patients. (Abstract)

Metronidazole in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile infection in high-risk hospitalised patients. In-hospital diarrhoea has a high impact on morbidity and mortality rates among hospitalised patients. Chemoprophylaxis with antibiotics in selected patients could be a cost-effective tool for prevention.A prospective randomised, open-label study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Mexico City, selecting patients at high risk of acquiring in-hospital (...) diarrhoea and assigning them to a group taking metronidazole 500mg orally every eight hours for seven days or an observation group. The primary endpoint was the presence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection during the seven days of evaluation. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Registration number (11.2017) of 14 March 2017.Of the 116 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 96 were analysed, 41 in the intervention group and 55

2019 Gastroenterologia y hepatologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

89. Antibiotic Review Kit for Hospitals (ARK-Hospital): study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial. (Full text)

Antibiotic Review Kit for Hospitals (ARK-Hospital): study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised controlled trial. To ensure patients continue to get early access to antibiotics at admission, while also safely reducing antibiotic use in hospitals, one needs to target the continued need for antibiotics as more diagnostic information becomes available. UK Department of Health guidance promotes an initiative called 'Start Smart then Focus': early effective antibiotics followed by active (...) 'review and revision' 24-72 h later. However in 2017, < 10% of antibiotic prescriptions were discontinued at review, despite studies suggesting that 20-30% of prescriptions could be stopped safely.Antibiotic Review Kit for Hospitals (ARK-Hospital) is a complex 'review and revise' behavioural intervention targeting healthcare professionals involved in antibiotic prescribing or administration in inpatients admitted to acute/general medicine (the largest consumers of non-prophylactic antibiotics

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

90. Short-term antibacterial efficacy of a new silver nanoparticle-containing toothbrush. (Abstract)

Short-term antibacterial efficacy of a new silver nanoparticle-containing toothbrush. 28507383 2019 07 22 2019 07 22 0030-9982 67 5 2017 May JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association J Pak Med Assoc Short-term antibacterial efficacy of a new silver nanoparticle-containing toothbrush. 818-819 Baygin Ozgul O Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey. Tuzuner Tamer T Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry

2019 JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

91. Systemic Antibiotic Therapy Reduces Circulating Inflammatory Dendritic Cells and Treg-Th17 Plasticity in Periodontitis. (Abstract)

Systemic Antibiotic Therapy Reduces Circulating Inflammatory Dendritic Cells and Treg-Th17 Plasticity in Periodontitis. Periodontitis (PD) is a common dysbiotic inflammatory disease that leads to local bone deterioration and tooth loss. PD patients experience low-grade bacteremias with oral microbes implicated in the risk of heart disease, cancer, and kidney failure. Although Th17 effectors are vital to fighting infection, functional imbalance of Th17 effectors and regulatory T cells (Tregs (...) ) promote inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated, in a small pilot randomized clinical trial, whether expansion of inflammatory blood myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) and conversion of Tregs to Th17 cells could be modulated with antibiotics (AB) as part of initial therapy in PD patients. PD patients were randomly assigned to either 7 d of peroral metronidazole/amoxicillin AB treatment or no AB, along with standard care debridement and chlorhexidine mouthwash. 16s ribosomal RNA analysis

2019 Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

92. Reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic prescribing: normative comparison using unblinded provider reports. (Full text)

Reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic prescribing: normative comparison using unblinded provider reports. Antibiotic resistance is a global health issue. Up to 50% of antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed, the majority of which are for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI).To evaluate the impact of unblinded normative comparison on rates of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARTI.Non-randomised, controlled interventional trial over 1 year followed by an open intervention (...) in the second year.Primary care providers in a large regional healthcare system.The test group consisted of 30 primary care providers in one geographical region; controls consisted of 162 primary care providers located in four other geographical regions.The intervention consisted of provider and patient education and provider feedback via biweekly, unblinded normative comparison highlighting inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARTI. The intervention was applied to both groups during the second

2019 BMJ Open Quality Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

93. Combined Endoscopic and Oral Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Antibiotic-Dependent Pouchitis: Low Clinical Efficacy due to Low Donor Microbial Engraftment. (Abstract)

Combined Endoscopic and Oral Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Antibiotic-Dependent Pouchitis: Low Clinical Efficacy due to Low Donor Microbial Engraftment. A significant number of pouch patients develop antibiotic-dependent pouchitis (ADP). Microbial dysbiosis is thought to be a major driver of clinical symptoms in ADP. The objective of this proof of concept study was to evaluate safety, efficacy, and donor microbial engraftment of an intensified fecal microbiota transplant (...) (FMT) consisting of a single endoscopic FMT followed by daily oral FMT for 2 weeks in patients with ADP.We performed a prospective placebo-controlled double-blind FMT trial in patents with established ADP and planned to enroll 20 patients in this proof of concept study. In case of non-response, patients were offered an optional open label active FMT treatment. The endpoints were safety, clinical remission without need for antibiotics during 16 weeks of follow-up, quantitative changes of fecal

2019 Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

94. The effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on wound infections after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised clinical trial. (Abstract)

The effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on wound infections after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised clinical trial. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of prophylactic antibiotics had any effects on the development of postoperative surgical wound infections between laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Patients who received a single dose of prophylactic antibiotics prior to surgery were included in the prophylaxis group, and those who did not receive preoperative (...) and postoperative intravenous and/or oral antibiotics were included in the no prophylaxis group. A total of 206 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were examined; the infection rate in patients who received prophylaxis was 4.5%, while it was 4.2% in the non-prophylactic group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of infection development rates (P > .05). We suggest that antibiotics should not be given for prophylaxis before low-risk laparoscopic

2019 International wound journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

95. Effectiveness of audit and feedback in addressing over prescribing of antibiotics and injectable medicines in a middle-income country: an RCT. (Full text)

Effectiveness of audit and feedback in addressing over prescribing of antibiotics and injectable medicines in a middle-income country: an RCT. Overprescribing of antibiotics and injectable medicines is common in ambulatory care in many low- and middleincome countries. We evaluated the effects of three different interventions in improving physician prescribing. We conducted a four-armed randomized controlled trial with one-month and three- months follow-up. General physicians, pediatricians

2019 Daru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

96. Antibiotic Treatment Versus No Treatment for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter Randomized Trial. (Full text)

Antibiotic Treatment Versus No Treatment for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter Randomized Trial. Whether antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can prevent acute graft pyelonephritis (AGP) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients has not been elucidated.In this multicenter, open-label, nonblinded, prospective, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial, we compared antibiotic treatment with no treatment for AB in KT recipients in the first year (...) in the primary endpoint in the intention-to-treat population (12.2% [5 of 41] in the treatment group vs 8.7% [4 of 46] in the no treatment group; risk ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-4.87) or the per-protocol population (13.8% [4 of 29] in the treatment group vs 6.7% [3 of 45] in the no treatment group; risk ratio, 2.07, 95% confidence interval, 0.50-8.58). No differences were found in secondary endpoints, except for antibiotic susceptibility. Fosfomycin (P = .030), amoxicillin-clavulanic (P

2019 Open forum infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

97. Prospective Analysis of Hand Infection Rates in Elective Soft Tissue Procedures of the Hand: The Role of Preoperative Antibiotics. (Abstract)

Prospective Analysis of Hand Infection Rates in Elective Soft Tissue Procedures of the Hand: The Role of Preoperative Antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective hand surgery in preventing postoperative infection.Between 2009 and 2012, we performed a multicenter trial in which patients undergoing elective hand surgeries were categorized into an antibiotic or control group depending on the center they were enrolled (...) in. Surgical site infections were defined according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention.In total, 434 patients were included: 257 did not receive antibiotics (control) and 177 received antibiotics at a mean age of 61.0 years. In the control group, comorbidities were more common with 23.7% (61/257) in comparison to the antibiotics group with 14.1% (25/177). Only one surgical site infection in each group was identified. One wound was opened surgically, and an antimicrobial treatment

2019 Hand (New York, N.Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

98. Re: Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomized, Open-label Trial. (Abstract)

Re: Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomized, Open-label Trial. 31151675 2019 10 19 1873-7560 76 5 2019 Nov European urology Eur. Urol. Re: Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomized, Open-label Trial. 708 S0302-2838(19)30422-1 10.1016/j.eururo.2019.05.018 Kessler Thomas M TM Department of Neuro-Urology, Balgrist University Hospital, University

2019 European Urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

99. Efficacy of seven and fourteen days of antibiotic treatment in uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB7): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

Efficacy of seven and fourteen days of antibiotic treatment in uncomplicated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB7): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is frequently encountered in the hospital setting, and current guidelines recommend at least 14 days of antibiotic treatment for SAB in order to minimize risks of secondary deep infections and relapse. However, evidence to support these treatment recommendations remains scarce. Patients (...) with uncomplicated SAB are known to have a low of risk of recurrence and death. Reducing treatment length in uncomplicated SAB would reduce the total consumption of antibiotics, duration of hospital admission, and potentially the risk of adverse events. With SAB7 we seek to determine if 7 days of antibiotic treatment in patients with uncomplicated SAB is non-inferior to 14 days of treatment.The study is designed as a randomized, non-blinded, non-inferiority, multicenter interventional study. Primary measure

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

100. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for bone and joint infections: the OVIVA non-inferiority RCT. (Full text)

but limited the statistical power of subgroup analyses. Participants were only followed up for 1 year so differences in late recurrence cannot be excluded.PO antibiotic therapy is non-inferior to IV therapy when used during the first 6 weeks in the treatment for bone and joint infection, as assessed by definitive treatment failure within 1 year of randomisation. These findings challenge the current standard of care and provide an opportunity to realise significant benefits for patients, antimicrobial (...) Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for bone and joint infections: the OVIVA non-inferiority RCT. Management of bone and joint infection commonly includes 4-6 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics, but there is little evidence to suggest that oral (PO) therapy results in worse outcomes.To determine whether or not PO antibiotics are non-inferior to IV antibiotics in treating bone and joint infection.Parallel-group, randomised (1 : 1), open-label, non-inferiority trial. The non-inferiority margin

2019 Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

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