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61. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for bone and joint infections: the OVIVA non-inferiority RCT. Full Text available with Trip Pro

but limited the statistical power of subgroup analyses. Participants were only followed up for 1 year so differences in late recurrence cannot be excluded.PO antibiotic therapy is non-inferior to IV therapy when used during the first 6 weeks in the treatment for bone and joint infection, as assessed by definitive treatment failure within 1 year of randomisation. These findings challenge the current standard of care and provide an opportunity to realise significant benefits for patients, antimicrobial (...) Oral versus intravenous antibiotics for bone and joint infections: the OVIVA non-inferiority RCT. Management of bone and joint infection commonly includes 4-6 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics, but there is little evidence to suggest that oral (PO) therapy results in worse outcomes.To determine whether or not PO antibiotics are non-inferior to IV antibiotics in treating bone and joint infection.Parallel-group, randomised (1 : 1), open-label, non-inferiority trial. The non-inferiority margin

2019 Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

62. A prospective randomized comparative study of targeted versus empirical prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infective complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A prospective randomized comparative study of targeted versus empirical prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of infective complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. It is established that antibiotic prophylaxis prevents infection following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. This study compares the infective complications in transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) in empirical versus targeted prophylactic antibiotics.Urine and rectal swabs were obtained (...) prior to TRPB. They were randomized into targeted antibiotic (TA) and empirical antibiotic (EA) groups. TA had prophylactic antibiotics according to rectal swab culture, whereas EA had the standard parenteral ciprofloxacin. They were followed up weekly for 4 weeks. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare categorical variables, Student's "t"-test was used to compare means of numerical variables, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.One hundred patients were studied

2019 Annals of African medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

63. Re: Continuous Low-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomised, Open-Label Trial. (Abstract)

Re: Continuous Low-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomised, Open-Label Trial. 31021292 2019 07 26 2019 07 26 1527-3792 202 2 2019 08 The Journal of urology J. Urol. Re: Continuous Low-Dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomised, Open-Label Trial. 191 10.1097/JU.0000000000000302 Schaeffer Edward M EM eng Journal Article Comment 2019 07 08 United States J Urol 0376374 0022-5347 (...) Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;18(9):957-968 30037647 Adult Antibiotic Prophylaxis Humans Research Design Urinary Catheterization Urinary Tract Infections 2019 4 26 6 0 2019 7 28 6 0 2019 4 26 6 0 ppublish 31021292 10.1097/JU.0000000000000302

2019 The Journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

64. PROCalcitonin-based algorithm for antibiotic use in Acute Pancreatitis (PROCAP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PROCalcitonin-based algorithm for antibiotic use in Acute Pancreatitis (PROCAP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Differentiating infection from inflammation in acute pancreatitis is difficult, leading to overuse of antibiotics. Procalcitonin (PCT) measurement is a means of distinguishing infection from inflammation as levels rise rapidly in response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus of bacterial origin and normally fall after successful treatment. Algorithms based on PCT (...) measurement can differentiate bacterial sepsis from a systemic inflammatory response. The PROCalcitonin-based algorithm for antibiotic use in Acute Pancreatitis (PROCAP) trial tests the hypothesis that a PCT-based algorithm to guide initiation, continuation and discontinuation of antibiotics will lead to reduced antibiotic use in patients with acute pancreatitis and without an adverse effect on outcome.This is a single-centre, randomised, controlled, single-blind, two-arm pragmatic clinical and cost

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high

65. Antibacterial Activity of Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibacterial Activity of The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms through inhibitory zone diameter to the growth of the bacterium Phorphyromonas gingivalis as the cause of periodontitis.This was an experimental study with randomised posttest-only control group design. The study was conducted at the Microbiology Research Center laboratory at the Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University, Indonesia. The study was conducted in vitro (...) of the Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria. The 6.25% earthworm extract showed no antibacterial activity against the growth of Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria.

2019 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

66. Usefulness of Preoperative Mechanical Bowel Preparation in Patients with Colon Cancer who Undergo Elective Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Trial Using Oral Antibiotics. (Abstract)

Usefulness of Preoperative Mechanical Bowel Preparation in Patients with Colon Cancer who Undergo Elective Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Trial Using Oral Antibiotics. To prevent surgical site infection (SSI) in colorectal surgery, the combination of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP), oral antibiotic bowel preparation (OABP), and the intravenous antibiotics have been proposed as standard treatment. We conducted an RCT comparing the incidence of SSI between MBP + OABP and OABP alone after (...) receiving a single dose of intravenous antibiotics.The study group comprised 254 patients who underwent elective surgery for colon cancer. Patients were randomly assigned to receive MBP + OABP and intravenous antibiotics (MBP + OABP group) or to receive OABP and intravenous antibiotics (OABP alone group).Overall, 125 patients in MBP + OABP group and 126 patients in OABP alone group were eligible. Incisional SSI occurred in 3 patients (2.4%) in MBP + OABP group, and 8 patients (6.3%) in the OABP-alone

2019 Digestive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

67. Prospective Analysis of Hand Infection Rates in Elective Soft Tissue Procedures of the Hand: The Role of Preoperative Antibiotics. (Abstract)

Prospective Analysis of Hand Infection Rates in Elective Soft Tissue Procedures of the Hand: The Role of Preoperative Antibiotics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective hand surgery in preventing postoperative infection.Between 2009 and 2012, we performed a multicenter trial in which patients undergoing elective hand surgeries were categorized into an antibiotic or control group depending on the center they were enrolled (...) in. Surgical site infections were defined according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention.In total, 434 patients were included: 257 did not receive antibiotics (control) and 177 received antibiotics at a mean age of 61.0 years. In the control group, comorbidities were more common with 23.7% (61/257) in comparison to the antibiotics group with 14.1% (25/177). Only one surgical site infection in each group was identified. One wound was opened surgically, and an antimicrobial treatment

2019 Hand (New York, N.Y.) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

68. Re: Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomized, Open-label Trial. (Abstract)

Re: Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomized, Open-label Trial. 31151675 2019 10 19 1873-7560 76 5 2019 Nov European urology Eur. Urol. Re: Continuous Low-dose Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Adults with Repeated Urinary Tract Infections (AnTIC): A Randomized, Open-label Trial. 708 S0302-2838(19)30422-1 10.1016/j.eururo.2019.05.018 Kessler Thomas M TM Department of Neuro-Urology, Balgrist University Hospital, University

2019 European Urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

69. [The question about the topical antibiotic therapy of acute rhinosinusitis]. (Abstract)

[The question about the topical antibiotic therapy of acute rhinosinusitis]. Presented the results of the clinical study of 30 patients with moderate rhinosinusitis (13 (43.3%) men, 17 (56.7%) women, age from 18 to 68 years). Among those patients, the inflammation of one paranasal sinus was observed in 7 (23.3%) cases, polysinusitis was observed in 23 (76. 7%) cases. All patients were randomized into 2 groups of 15 people. In both groups, patients received systemic antibiotic therapy, nasal (...) irrigation therapy, and NSAIDs. In the control group, topical decongestants were used; in the experimental group the antimicrobial drug Polydexa with phenylephrine was used as a local therapy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Polydexa with phenylephrine in the complex treatment of moderate acute rhinosinusitis. The evaluation criteria were statistically significant comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of both groups. Confirmed the anti-inflammatory

2019 Vestnik otorinolaringologii Controlled trial quality: uncertain

70. Editorial Comment from Dr Sadahira et al. to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Editorial Comment from Dr Sadahira et al. to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 30659661 2019 03 03 1442-2042 26 3 2019 Mar International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Int. J. Urol. Editorial Comment from Dr Sadahira et al. to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 399 10.1111/iju.13907 Sadahira Takuya T

2019 International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

71. Perinatal antibiotics alter preterm infant EEG and neurobehavior in the Family Nurture Intervention trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perinatal antibiotics alter preterm infant EEG and neurobehavior in the Family Nurture Intervention trial. Early exposure to antibiotics has been shown to increase risk for poor neurobehavioral development, particularly with regard to attention deficit disorders. Clinically, electroencephalography (EEG) is increasingly used as a biomarker of these deficits. Less is known about the effects of antibiotics on neurobehavioral and neurophysiological outcomes in preterm infants, a population (...) at particularly high risk for attention deficits and perinatal antibiotic exposure. This study examines the effects of perinatal antibiotic exposure on neonatal EEG and attention deficits as measured by the Child Behavior Checklist in 4- to 5-year-old children who were enrolled in an NICU-based randomized controlled trial comparing Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) to standard care. Antibiotic-exposed infants had increased attention problems and there was a main effect of antibiotic exposure such that exposed

2019 Developmental psychobiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

72. The efficiency of extended postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

The efficiency of extended postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Postoperative antibiotics are commonly administered in orthognathic surgery, despite the fact that there is no consensus regarding their efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of postoperative antibiotics in orthognathic surgery by conducting a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo (...) ) and temperature were similar for both groups. Serous discharge was observed in two patients (both in the placebo group), and one of them required surgical intervention. Overall, infection rate was similar in both groups (p-value > 0.1). To conclude, administration of postoperative antibiotics in healthy, young patients undergoing orthognathic surgery did not show a significant advantage in reducing surgical infection rate.Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published

2019 Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

73. Editorial Comment from Dr Macdonald and Dr Roberts to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Editorial Comment from Dr Macdonald and Dr Roberts to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 30644140 2019 03 03 1442-2042 26 3 2019 Mar International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Int. J. Urol. Editorial Comment from Dr Macdonald and Dr Roberts to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 397-398 10.1111/iju

2019 International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

74. Effect of point-of-care C-reactive protein testing on antibiotic prescription in febrile patients attending primary care in Thailand and Myanmar: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of point-of-care C-reactive protein testing on antibiotic prescription in febrile patients attending primary care in Thailand and Myanmar: an open-label, randomised, controlled trial. In southeast Asia, antibiotic prescription in febrile patients attending primary care is common, and a probable contributor to the high burden of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this trial was to explore whether C-reactive protein (CRP) testing at point of care could rationalise antibiotic (...) prescription in primary care, comparing two proposed thresholds to classify CRP concentrations as low or high to guide antibiotic treatment.We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial in participants aged at least 1 year with a documented fever or a chief complaint of fever (regardless of previous antibiotic intake and comorbidities other than malignancies) recruited from six public primary care units in Thailand and three primary care clinics and one outpatient department in Myanmar

2019 The Lancet. Global health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

75. Twenty-four hour versus extended antibiotic administration after surgery in complicated appendicitis: A randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Twenty-four hour versus extended antibiotic administration after surgery in complicated appendicitis: A randomized controlled trial. Recent investigations noted noninferiority in short-course antimicrobial treatments following source control in abdominal infections. We set out to investigate noninferiority of a short and fixed (24 hours) antibiotic administration compared to extended treatment after source control in complicated appendicitis in a prospective single-center open-label randomized (...) groups (p = 0.29). Hospital length of stay was significantly reduced in the short therapy group (61 ± 34 hours vs. 81 ± 40 hours, p = 0.005).In the current prospective randomized investigation, the short (24 hours) antibiotic administration following appendectomy did not result in a worse primary outcome in complicated appendicitis. The short interval administration resulted in a significant reduction in HLOS with a major cost-saving and antibacterial stewardship perspective.Therapeutic Level IV.

2019 The journal of trauma and acute care surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

76. Effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on ventilator-associated pneumonia in severe traumatic brain injury. A post hoc analysis of two trials. (Abstract)

Effects of antibiotic prophylaxis on ventilator-associated pneumonia in severe traumatic brain injury. A post hoc analysis of two trials. To investigate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI).This post hoc analysis was conducted based on data from 2 multicentre double-blind studies that aimed to prevent VAP using hydrocortisone or povidone iodine. Data from TBI patients were

2019 Journal of critical care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

77. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of cardiac implantable electronic device infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of cardiac implantable electronic device infection. The aim of the present study was to determine whether postprocedural antibiotic reduces the risk of infection related to the cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantations.The present investigation is a randomized, prospective, single-blinded controlled trial. All consecutive patients who presented for new CIED implantation, generator replacement, or upgrade were randomized (...) into the following three groups: (A) no antibiotic, (B) intravenous (IV) antibiotic for 1 day, (C) 1 day IV plus 7 days oral antibiotic. Follow-up was performed on 10-12 days; 1, 3, 6 months; and then every 6 months for 2 years. The primary endpoint was any evidence of infection at the generator pocket or systemic infection related to the procedure at short-term (6-month) and long-term (2-year) follow-ups.Of the 450 patients (72 patients with cardiac resynchronization device) included in the study, the primary

2019 Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

78. Editorial Comment from Dr Togo to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Editorial Comment from Dr Togo to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 30636346 2019 03 03 1442-2042 26 3 2019 Mar International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Int. J. Urol. Editorial Comment from Dr Togo to Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. 398-399 10.1111/iju.13898 Togo Yoshikazu Y Department of Urology

2019 International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

79. Clinical antibacterial effectiveness and biocompatibility of gaseous ozone after incomplete caries removal. (Abstract)

Clinical antibacterial effectiveness and biocompatibility of gaseous ozone after incomplete caries removal. To evaluate local effect of gaseous ozone on bacteria in deep carious lesions after incomplete caries removal, using chlorhexidine as control, and to investigate its effect on pulp vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD).Antibacterial effect was evaluated in 48 teeth with diagnosed deep carious lesion. After

2019 Clinical oral investigations Controlled trial quality: uncertain

80. Frequency of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Related Complications in Pediatric Patients Who Underwent Hypospadias Repair: a Comparative Study Using Probiotics vs Placebo. (Abstract)

Frequency of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Related Complications in Pediatric Patients Who Underwent Hypospadias Repair: a Comparative Study Using Probiotics vs Placebo. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), as a preventive measure of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in children who underwent hypospadias repair and its clinical consequences on postoperative outcome, comparing the group treated with probiotics + antibiotics with two (...) control groups (only antibiotics and antibiotics + placebo). We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study with three groups of patients (30 boys for each group) who underwent hypospadias repair in our unit from March 2016 to December 2016. G1 received antibiotics + probiotics (L. rhamnosus GG), while G2 and G3 respectively received only antibiotics or antibiotics + placebo (glucose solution at 5%) for the same period. The patients were evaluated in regard to the number

2019 Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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