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61. Ruminally protected and unprotected Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products as alternatives to antibiotics in finishing beef steers1. (Abstract)

Ruminally protected and unprotected Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products as alternatives to antibiotics in finishing beef steers1. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP; NaturSafe, SCFPns; and Original XPC, XPC; Diamond V) on growth performance, carcass traits, immune response, and antimicrobial resistance in beef steers fed high-grain diets. Ninety Angus steers (initial body weight [BW], 533 ± 9.8 kg) were (...) control, SCFPns, and eXPC, whereas no difference was observed among control, SCFPns, and eXPC. No treatment effect was detected on the percentage of tetracycline-resistant enterococci. These results indicate that feeding SCFPns and eXPC was beneficial in improving ADG, feed efficiency and decreasing liver abscesses in a manner comparable to ANT. Unlike antibiotics, SCFPns or eXPC did not increase antimicrobial resistance. Both SCFPns and eXPC are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics.© Crown

2019 Journal of animal science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

62. An overview of positive cultures and clinical outcomes in septic patients: a sub-analysis of the Prehospital Antibiotics Against Sepsis (PHANTASi) trial. (Full text)

An overview of positive cultures and clinical outcomes in septic patients: a sub-analysis of the Prehospital Antibiotics Against Sepsis (PHANTASi) trial. Sepsis remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In approximately 30-50% of cases of suspected sepsis, no pathogen is isolated, disabling the clinician to treat the patient with targeted antimicrobial therapy. Studies investigating the differences in the patient outcomes between culture-positive and culture (...) -negative sepsis patients have only been conducted in subgroups of sepsis patients and results are ambiguous.This is a sub-analysis of the PHANTASi (Prehospital Antibiotics Against Sepsis trial), a randomized controlled trial that focused on the effect of prehospital antibiotics in sepsis patients. We evaluated the outcome of cultures from different sources and determined what the clinical implications of having a positive culture compared to negative cultures were for patient outcomes. Furthermore, we

2019 Critical care (London, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

63. Anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT. (Full text)

Anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT. Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common reason for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing in children. Options for improved pain control may influence antibiotic prescribing and consumption.The Children's Ear Pain Study (CEDAR) investigated whether or not providing anaesthetic-analgesic ear drops reduced antibiotic consumption in children with AOM. Secondary (...) objectives included pain control and cost-effectiveness.A multicentre, randomised, parallel-group (two-group initially, then three-group) trial.Primary care practices in England and Wales.1- to 10-year-old children presenting within 1 week of suspected AOM onset with ear pain during the preceding 24 hours and not requiring immediate antibiotics. Participating children were logged into the study and allocated using a remote randomisation service.Two-group trial - unblinded comparison of anaesthetic

2019 Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

64. Do antibacterial skin sutures reduce surgical site infections after elective open abdominal surgery? - Study protocol of a prospective, randomized controlled single center trial. (Full text)

Do antibacterial skin sutures reduce surgical site infections after elective open abdominal surgery? - Study protocol of a prospective, randomized controlled single center trial. Surgical site infections (SSI) remain one of the most common complications in conventional abdominal surgery with an incidence between 4% and 19% (Sandini et al., Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e4057, 2016) in the literature. It is unclear whether the use of coated suture material for skin closure reduces the risk of SSI (...) . In line with in-vitro results, we hypothesize that the use of antibacterial skin sutures (triclosan-coated poliglecaprone 25) reduces the rate of SSI after open abdominal surgery.To prevent SSI, triclosan-coated poliglecaprone 25 sutures will be tested against un-coated suture material for skin closure after elective open abdominal surgery of 364 patients. The study is planned as a single-center, prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients will be followed for 30 days after surgery to detect

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

65. Are postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in closed reduction of nasal bone fracture valuable?: prospective study of 30 cases. (Full text)

Are postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in closed reduction of nasal bone fracture valuable?: prospective study of 30 cases. Prophylactic antibiotic administration after surgery for a nasal bone fracture is performed due to concerns about infection-related complications, such as, toxic shock syndrome. To evaluate the validity and efficacy of antibiotic use, we compared the results obtained and the bacterial profiles of nasal packing materials in patients that underwent closed reduction (...) for a nasal bone fracture with or without prophylactic antibiotic administration.Thirty consecutive patients with a nasal bone fracture, but without an open wound, that underwent closed reduction during March to August 2017 were included in the present study. Fifteen of these 30 patients were randomly assigned to a control group, members of were administered postoperative intravenous antibiotics once at the day of surgery and then oral antibiotics for 4 days. The other 15 patients were assigned

2019 Archives of Craniofacial Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

66. Effect of using internal teat sealant with or without antibiotic therapy at dry-off on subsequent somatic cell count and milk production. (Full text)

Effect of using internal teat sealant with or without antibiotic therapy at dry-off on subsequent somatic cell count and milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of treating cows with teat sealant only compared with antibiotic plus teat sealant at drying off on weekly somatic cell count, potential intramammary infection, and milk production across the entire subsequent lactation. In 3 research herds in the south of Ireland, cows with SCC that did not exceed 200,000 (...) cells/mL in the previous lactation (LowSCC) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments at drying off: internal teat sealant alone (ITS) or antibiotic plus teat sealant (AB+ITS). Cows with SCC that exceeded 200,000 cells/mL in the previous lactation were treated with AB+ITS and included in the analyses as a separate group (HighSCC). Weekly individual animal composite SCC records were available for 654 cow lactations and were transformed to somatic cell scores (SCS) for the purpose of analysis. Data

2019 Journal of dairy science Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

67. Randomized clinical trial of co-amoxiclav versus no antibiotic prophylaxis in varicose vein surgery. (Full text)

Randomized clinical trial of co-amoxiclav versus no antibiotic prophylaxis in varicose vein surgery. 31162654 2019 11 20 1365-2168 106 7 2019 Jun The British journal of surgery Br J Surg Randomized clinical trial of co-amoxiclav versus no antibiotic prophylaxis in varicose vein surgery. 953 10.1002/bjs.11254 eng Published Erratum England Br J Surg 0372553 0007-1323 Br J Surg. 2010 Jan;97(1):29-36 20013927 2019 6 5 6 0 2019 6 5 6 0 2019 6 5 6 1 ppublish 31162654 10.1002/bjs.11254

2019 The British journal of surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

68. Extended Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics with First-Generation Cephalosporin Do Not Reduce the Risk of Periprosthetic Joint Infection following Aseptic Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. (Abstract)

Extended Postoperative Prophylactic Antibiotics with First-Generation Cephalosporin Do Not Reduce the Risk of Periprosthetic Joint Infection following Aseptic Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty. Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics administered within 24 hours of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been documented to prevent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). However, the effectiveness of this regimen is still unclear in aseptic revision TKA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (...) whether extended postoperative prophylactic antibiotics would reduce the PJI rate compared with the current 24-hour standard postoperative prophylactic antibiotics after aseptic revision TKA. A retrospective review of 236 patients (46 men, 190 women, 252 knees) who underwent aseptic revision TKA between 2005 and 2013 was conducted. Patients who underwent septic revision, had a positive intraoperative culture, or who had less than 2 years of follow-up were excluded. Patients were divided according

2019 The journal of knee surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

69. Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba (Full text)

Faecal microbiota transplant for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enteroba 30685497 2019 06 14 1469-0691 25 7 2019 Jul Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Faecal microbiota transplant (...) for eradication of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a lesson in applying best practice? Re: 'A five-day course of oral antibiotics followed by faecal transplantation to eradicate carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: A Randomized Clinical Trial'. 912-913 S1198-743X(19)30030-8 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.01.010 Mullish B H BH Division of Integrative Systems Medicine and Digestive Disease, St Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK. Ghani R R Division of Integrative Systems

2019 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

70. A protocol for a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial of continuous versus intermittent β-lactam antibiotic infusion in critically ill patients with sepsis: BLING III. (Abstract)

A protocol for a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial of continuous versus intermittent β-lactam antibiotic infusion in critically ill patients with sepsis: BLING III. β-Lactam antibiotics display a time-dependent mechanism of action, with evidence suggesting improved outcomes when administering these drugs via continuous infusion compared with standard intermittent infusion. However, there is no phase 3 randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence to support one method (...) of administration over another in critically ill patients with sepsis.The β-Lactam Infusion Group (BLING) III study is a prospective, multicentre, open, phase 3 RCT to compare continuous infusion with standard intermittent infusion of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with sepsis. The study will be conducted in about 70 intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Belgium and selected other countries, from 2018 to 2021.BLING III will recruit 7000 critically ill

2019 Critical care and resuscitation : journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

71. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of prevention of antibiotic-induced gastrointestinal signs using a synbiotic mixture in healthy research dogs. (Full text)

Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of prevention of antibiotic-induced gastrointestinal signs using a synbiotic mixture in healthy research dogs. Synbiotics decrease antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs (AAGS) in cats, but data supporting synbiotic use to ameliorate AAGS in dogs are lacking.To determine if administration of synbiotics mitigates AAGS in dogs.Twenty-two healthy research dogs.Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way, 2-period, crossover study with an 8 (...) /metronidazole administration is associated with a high frequency of AAGS. Synbiotic administration decreases food intake derangements. The presence of milder AAGS in period 2 suggests that clinical effects of synbiotics persist >9 weeks after discontinuation, mitigating AAGS in dogs being treated with antibiotics followed by placebo.© 2019 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

2019 Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

72. [Influence of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis and/or cystoscope cleaning/disinfecting method on urinary culture becoming positive after outpatient flexible cystoscopy.] (Abstract)

[Influence of systematic antibiotic prophylaxis and/or cystoscope cleaning/disinfecting method on urinary culture becoming positive after outpatient flexible cystoscopy.] To evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis as well as the cleaning/disinfection procedures to prevent urinary tract infection in patients undergoing office flexible cystoscopy.A prospective, randomized study was performed between June 2015 to May 2016 including every patient who underwent flexible cystoscopy (...) at the Urology outpatient unit. Patients with temporary or permanent urinary stents were excluded from the study as well as procedures that involved bladder biopsies. A total of 251 patients were recruited. Urinary culture was collected in all of the patients before and after the procedure. Patients were randomized in two groups: Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis. Antibiotic prophylaxis consisted in 4 doses of Norfloxacin ( 400mg ): twice a day during two days. Three different cleaning

2019 Archivos Espanoles de Urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

73. Two different antibiotic protocols as adjuncts to one-stage full-mouth ultrasonic debridement to treat generalized aggressive periodontitis: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Two different antibiotic protocols as adjuncts to one-stage full-mouth ultrasonic debridement to treat generalized aggressive periodontitis: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. To assess the clinical and microbiological responses of amoxicillin + metronidazole (AMX + MET) versus clarithromycin (CLM) as adjuncts to one-stage full-mouth ultrasonic debridement (FMUD) in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP).For this parallel, double-masked, pilot randomized (...) from subgingival biofilm were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.Both treatments significantly improved all clinical parameters compared with baseline and promoted a significant reduction of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis counts (P > 0.05). CLM succeeded in decreasing T. forsythia at 6 months (P < 0.05), but no antibiotic was able to reduce F. nucleatum. There was no difference between the two protocols regarding the reported adverse effects (P > 0.05).The results

2019 Journal of periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

74. Dietary Chitooligosaccharide Inclusion as an Alternative to Antibiotics Improves Intestinal Morphology, Barrier Function, Antioxidant Capacity, and Immunity of Broilers at Early Age. (Full text)

Dietary Chitooligosaccharide Inclusion as an Alternative to Antibiotics Improves Intestinal Morphology, Barrier Function, Antioxidant Capacity, and Immunity of Broilers at Early Age. This study aimed to investigate the effects of chitooligosaccharide (COS) inclusion as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, intestinal morphology, barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and immunity in broilers. In total, 144 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned into 3 (...) groups and fed a basal diet free from antibiotics (control group) or the same basal diet further supplemented with either chlortetracycline (antibiotic group) or COS, for 21 days. Compared with the control group, inclusion of COS reduced the feed to gain ratio, the jejunal crypt depth, the plasma diamine oxidase activity, and the endotoxin concentration, as well as jejunal and ileal malondialdehyde contents, whereas increased duodenal villus height, duodenal and jejunal ratio of villus height

2019 Animals : an open access journal from MDPI Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

75. Tackling the outcome bias related to the effectiveness of antibiotics against the common cold: results of a randomized controlled trial applying the Solomon four-group design. (Abstract)

Tackling the outcome bias related to the effectiveness of antibiotics against the common cold: results of a randomized controlled trial applying the Solomon four-group design. In recent years, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become an international public health priority. In the area of human medicine, the mis- and overuse of antibiotics is an important contributor to the development of AMR. Such a non-prudent use of antibiotics is especially prevalent in the treatment of viral infections (...) such as the common cold. The present study aims to address the misconception, also known as outcome bias, that antibiotics may be an effective treatment against the common cold by providing a "debiasing" risk communication intervention. It aims at conveying the non-existence of a cause-effect relationship between antibiotics and the reduction of cold-related symptoms through a visual aid and simple explanatory text. A Solomon four-group design was employed to test for within- and between-subjects effects

2019 Translational behavioral medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

76. One-day versus four-day antibiotic treatment for acute right colonic uncomplicated diverticulitis: A randomized clinical trial. (Full text)

One-day versus four-day antibiotic treatment for acute right colonic uncomplicated diverticulitis: A randomized clinical trial. Currently, right colonic uncomplicated diverticulitis is typically treated with antibiotic therapy. However, the optimal duration of treatment is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment failure rates between 1- and 4-day antibiotic treatment protocols.A prospective randomized study in adults presenting with uncomplicated diverticulitis (...) at the first episode from July 2011 to June 2014 was performed. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous antibiotics for 1 day (1-day group) or intravenous and oral antibiotics for 4 days (4-day group). All patients received cefmetazole and metronidazole. Treatment failure was defined as readmission within 30 days and disease recurrence during the follow-up period.Overall, 87 and 89 patients were randomized to the 1-day and 4-day groups, respectively. All patients were successfully treated initially

2019 The Turkish journal of gastroenterology : the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

77. No differences in microbiome changes between anti-adhesive and antibacterial ingredients in toothpastes during periodontal therapy. (Full text)

No differences in microbiome changes between anti-adhesive and antibacterial ingredients in toothpastes during periodontal therapy. This subgroup analysis of a 12-week randomized, double-blind, and two-center trial aimed to evaluate whether two different toothpaste formulations can differentially modulate the dental microbiome.Forty one mild to moderate periodontitis patients used as an adjunct to periodontal treatment either a toothpaste with anti-adhesive zinc-substituted carbonated (...) hydroxyapatite (HA) or with antimicrobial and anti-adhesive amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF2 ) during a 12-week period. Plaque samples from buccal/lingual, interproximal, and subgingival sites were taken at baseline, 4 weeks after oral hygiene phase, and 8 weeks after periodontal therapy. Samples were analyzed with paired-end Illumina Miseq 16S rDNA sequencing. The differences and changes on community level (alpha and beta diversity) and on the level of single agglomerated ribosomal sequence

2019 Journal of periodontal research Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

78. Necessity of Antibiotics to Reduce Inflammatory Complications after Third Molar Extractions: A Prospective Study. (Full text)

Necessity of Antibiotics to Reduce Inflammatory Complications after Third Molar Extractions: A Prospective Study. To determine the relationship between the usage of antibiotics postoperatively and inflammatory complications following third molar extractions.The sample was derived from Saudi Arabia private practitioners who were oral surgeons and was randomly categorized into two groups: group A, who took postoperative antibiotics, and group B, who have not taken antibiotics. The observed (...) primary variable was the occurrence of inflammatory complications subsequent to removal of third molar.The data were obtained from 35 oral surgeons, who gave details about 725 patients in whom 965 third molars were removed. A total of 455 (62.75%) patients have taken antibiotics postoperatively. The mean age was 28 ± 14.8 years. We noticed a very high male preponderance of 543 (74.89%). Mean body mass index was 26.7 ± 6.3 kg/m2. The mean Preoperative Disease Severity Score and Operative Difficulty

2019 Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

79. Comparative evaluation of two antibacterial-coated resorbable sutures versus noncoated resorbable sutures in periodontal flap surgery: A clinico-microbiological study. (Full text)

Comparative evaluation of two antibacterial-coated resorbable sutures versus noncoated resorbable sutures in periodontal flap surgery: A clinico-microbiological study. Sutures at the surgical site can act as a reservoir for microbes, leading to surgical site infection. This mainly occurs in braided sutures due to wicking action. The use of triclosan-coated suture (TCS) or chlorhexidine-coated suture (CCS) could be one of the possible alternatives to reduce the microbial load.The study (...) was designed to assess the antibacterial efficacy of resorbable TCS and CCS along with its effect on healing after periodontal flap surgery in comparison to noncoated sutures (NCSs).Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis indicated for periodontal flap surgery satisfying inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in the three groups: (1) NCS-polyglycolic acid sutures (control group), (2) TCS-polyglycolic acid sutures (experimental Group A), and (3) CCS-polyglycolic acid sutures (experimental Group B

2019 Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

80. Effect of the administration of a probiotic with a combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains on antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (Abstract)

Effect of the administration of a probiotic with a combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains on antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect, safety and tolerability of a specific probiotic combination of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains (Pearls IC©) on antibiotic associated diarrhea due to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treatment.Pilot, unicentric, randomized, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study (probiotic vs. placebo (...) of the subjective assessment were in favor of the probiotic with higher rate of like responses than placebo.Pearls IC© demonstrated its beneficial effect on antibiotic associated diarrhea by delaying the onset of diarrhea and showed a tendency to decrease the number of daily stools vs. placebo.©The Author 2019. Published by Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)(https://creativecommons.org

2019 Revista espanola de quimioterapia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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