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41. The effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on wound infections after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised clinical trial. (Abstract)

The effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on wound infections after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomised clinical trial. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of prophylactic antibiotics had any effects on the development of postoperative surgical wound infections between laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. Patients who received a single dose of prophylactic antibiotics prior to surgery were included in the prophylaxis group, and those who did not receive preoperative (...) and postoperative intravenous and/or oral antibiotics were included in the no prophylaxis group. A total of 206 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were examined; the infection rate in patients who received prophylaxis was 4.5%, while it was 4.2% in the non-prophylactic group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of infection development rates (P > .05). We suggest that antibiotics should not be given for prophylaxis before low-risk laparoscopic

2019 International wound journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

42. Effectiveness of audit and feedback in addressing over prescribing of antibiotics and injectable medicines in a middle-income country: an RCT. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effectiveness of audit and feedback in addressing over prescribing of antibiotics and injectable medicines in a middle-income country: an RCT. Overprescribing of antibiotics and injectable medicines is common in ambulatory care in many low- and middleincome countries. We evaluated the effects of three different interventions in improving physician prescribing. We conducted a four-armed randomized controlled trial with one-month and three- months follow-up. General physicians, pediatricians

2019 Daru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

43. Antibiotic Treatment Versus No Treatment for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter Randomized Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Treatment Versus No Treatment for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Multicenter Randomized Trial. Whether antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can prevent acute graft pyelonephritis (AGP) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients has not been elucidated.In this multicenter, open-label, nonblinded, prospective, noninferiority, randomized controlled trial, we compared antibiotic treatment with no treatment for AB in KT recipients in the first year (...) in the primary endpoint in the intention-to-treat population (12.2% [5 of 41] in the treatment group vs 8.7% [4 of 46] in the no treatment group; risk ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-4.87) or the per-protocol population (13.8% [4 of 29] in the treatment group vs 6.7% [3 of 45] in the no treatment group; risk ratio, 2.07, 95% confidence interval, 0.50-8.58). No differences were found in secondary endpoints, except for antibiotic susceptibility. Fosfomycin (P = .030), amoxicillin-clavulanic (P

2019 Open forum infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high

44. Antibiotic irrigation during pancreatoduodenectomy to prevent infection and pancreatic fistula: A randomized controlled clinical trial. (Abstract)

Antibiotic irrigation during pancreatoduodenectomy to prevent infection and pancreatic fistula: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Surgical site infection affects 25% of patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of intraperitoneal antibiotic irrigation in decreasing infection and pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy.Patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy were randomized (1:1 ratio) to intraperitoneal (...) antibiotic (polymyxin B, 500,000 units/L) irrigation or 0.9% NaCl irrigation. All patients received 1 dose of standard parenteral antibiotics within 1 hour of incision. The trial was powered to detect a 15% difference in any surgical site infection (primary endpoint) within 30 days after pancreatoduodenectomy.One hundred ninety patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy were randomized: 95 to antibiotic irrigation and 95 to saline irrigation. Groups were well matched regarding demographics, diagnosis

2019 Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

45. Antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in low-income countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the AIMS trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in low-income countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis of the AIMS trial. There is ongoing debate on the clinical benefits of antibiotic prophylaxis for reducing pelvic infection after miscarriage surgery. We aimed to study the cost-effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in low-income countries.We did an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 3412 women recruited (...) to the AIMS trial, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in the surgical management of miscarriage in Malawi, Pakistan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Economic evaluation was done from a health-care-provider perspective on the basis of the outcome of cost per pelvic infection avoided within 2 weeks of surgery. Pelvic infection was broadly defined by the presence of clinical features or the clinically identified need to administer

2019 The Lancet. Global health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

46. [Preliminary study of the antibacterial effect on the conjunctival sac and the influence on the corneal epithelium of domestic 5% povidone-iodine before cataract extraction]. (Abstract)

[Preliminary study of the antibacterial effect on the conjunctival sac and the influence on the corneal epithelium of domestic 5% povidone-iodine before cataract extraction]. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and adverse reactions of 5% povidone-iodine in removing bacteria from the conjunctival sac with different durations. Methods: Randomized controlled study. A total of 420 patients who underwent cataract surgery in Daping Hospital, Army Medical University from December 2017 to June 2018

2019 [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

47. Ruminally protected and unprotected Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products as alternatives to antibiotics in finishing beef steers1. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ruminally protected and unprotected Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products as alternatives to antibiotics in finishing beef steers1. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP; NaturSafe, SCFPns; and Original XPC, XPC; Diamond V) on growth performance, carcass traits, immune response, and antimicrobial resistance in beef steers fed high-grain diets. Ninety Angus steers (initial body weight [BW], 533 ± 9.8 kg) were (...) control, SCFPns, and eXPC, whereas no difference was observed among control, SCFPns, and eXPC. No treatment effect was detected on the percentage of tetracycline-resistant enterococci. These results indicate that feeding SCFPns and eXPC was beneficial in improving ADG, feed efficiency and decreasing liver abscesses in a manner comparable to ANT. Unlike antibiotics, SCFPns or eXPC did not increase antimicrobial resistance. Both SCFPns and eXPC are potential alternatives to in-feed antibiotics.© Crown

2019 Journal of animal science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

48. Can post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy be completely done away with in the Indian setting? A prospective randomised study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Can post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy be completely done away with in the Indian setting? A prospective randomised study. Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has low risk for post-operative infectious complications; still most clinicians use persistent post-operative prophylactic antibiotics out of habit, tradition, or simply as defensive practice due to evolving medicolegal implications of a large number of surgeries being showcased (...) in the presence of positive bile culture (Group A, N = 7 vs. Group B, N = 3). An operative time of greater than 60 min was found to be associated with increased surgical site infection (P = 0. 0006).Single dose of ceftriaxone at the time of induction is adequate prophylaxis following elective LC even in the rural/semi-urban Indian setting and routine continued administration of antibiotic should be abandoned as it contributes to adverse reactions, drug resistance and unnecessary financial burden.

2019 Journal of minimal access surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

49. Exploring the Effectiveness of Team-based Enablement Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing within a Psychiatric Hospital. (Abstract)

Exploring the Effectiveness of Team-based Enablement Interventions to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing within a Psychiatric Hospital. Background: Antimicrobial resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of many types of infections. Infection occurs more frequently in patients diagnosed with psychiatric illness due to a number of risk factors. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common infections in this patient population. Currently, there is little information (...) to educational interventions, and 2) whether there is a relationship between different modes of educational interventions and increased knowledge attainment and retention among healthcare clinicians regarding UTI treatment. This study also sought to determine if 3) health-team teaching used as an enablement method improves antibiotic prescribing and if 4) the number of appropriate UTI treatment regimens increased following educational intervention compared to baseline (prior to educational intervention

2019 Innovations in clinical neuroscience Controlled trial quality: uncertain

50. Postoperative pain and antibacterial effect of 980 nm diode laser versus conventional endodontic treatment in necrotic teeth with chronic periapical lesions: A randomized control trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Postoperative pain and antibacterial effect of 980 nm diode laser versus conventional endodontic treatment in necrotic teeth with chronic periapical lesions: A randomized control trial. Background: Many challenges encounter the endodontist, especially when dealing with necrotic teeth with chronic periapical lesions. Postoperative pain may be induced following conventional endodontic therapy and total eradication of the bacteria is almost unachievable even with recently available techniques

2019 F1000Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

51. Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections 12 Months After Communication and CRP Training: A Randomized Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections 12 Months After Communication and CRP Training: A Randomized Trial. C-reactive-protein (CRP) is useful for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A large international trial documented that Internet-based training in CRP point-of-care testing, in enhanced communication skills, or both reduced antibiotic prescribing at 3 months, with risk ratios (RRs) of 0.68, 0.53, 0.38, respectively. We report the longer-term impact (...) in this trial.A total of 246 general practices in 6 countries were cluster-randomized to usual care, Internet-based training on CRP point-of-care testing, Internet-based training on enhanced communication skills and interactive booklet, or both interventions combined. The main outcome was antibiotic prescribing for RTIs after 12 months.Of 228 practices providing 3-month data, 74% provided 12-month data, with no demonstrable attrition bias. Between 3 months and 12 months, prescribing for RTIs decreased

2019 Annals of family medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

52. Prebiotic supplementation over a cold season and during antibiotic treatment specifically modulates the gut microbiota composition of 3-6 year-old children. (Abstract)

Prebiotic supplementation over a cold season and during antibiotic treatment specifically modulates the gut microbiota composition of 3-6 year-old children. Supplementing kindergarten children during a cold season with a prebiotic inulin-type fructans product with shorter and longer fructan chains has been shown to reduce febrile episodes requiring medical attention and to lower the incidence of sinusitis. These beneficial effects may be connected to the specific modulation of children's gut (...) microbiota. By applying quantitative and qualitative microbiota analysis this study aimed at characterising the gut microbiota composition and at exploring effects of prebiotic intervention on the gut microbiota during a 24-weeks intervention and during antibiotic treatment in healthy children. The study was a randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 258 healthy children aged 3 to 6 years consuming 6 g/day prebiotic inulin-type fructans or maltodextrin. During the course of the study, faecal samples

2019 Beneficial microbes Controlled trial quality: uncertain

53. The influence of timing of Maternal administration of Antibiotics during cesarean section on the intestinal Microbial colonization in Infants (MAMI-trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The influence of timing of Maternal administration of Antibiotics during cesarean section on the intestinal Microbial colonization in Infants (MAMI-trial): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. A disturbance in the early colonisation of the gut by microorganisms is associated with an aberrant innate immune system and a variety of clinical conditions later in life. Several factors are considered to influence this initial colonisation, including maternally administered antibiotics (...) during pregnancy and delivery. Recent revisions to international obstetric guidelines have resulted in the exposure of all infants born by caesarean section (CS) to broad-spectrum antibiotics perinatally. To date, the consequences of these new guidelines on neonatal gut colonisation and the associated short- and long-term health implications have not yet been addressed. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the timing of antibiotic administration during CS to the mother

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

54. Analysis of ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics in infant pneumonia treatment. (Abstract)

Analysis of ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics in infant pneumonia treatment. To observe and analyze the specific nursing pattern for ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics in infant pneumonia treatment, 200 children with pneumonia treated in our hospital were enrolled as the study subjects. All the patients were treated with ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics. The children were divided into a reference group treated with general conventional nursing and a study (...) in the study group, P<0.05. In infant pneumonia treatment with ultrasonic atomized inhalation of antibiotics, targeted nursing patterns should be adopted to improve overall treatment efficacy.

2019 Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55. The use of a tetracycline drain reduces alveolar osteitis: a randomized prospective trial of third molar surgery under local anesthetics and without the use of systemic antibiotics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The use of a tetracycline drain reduces alveolar osteitis: a randomized prospective trial of third molar surgery under local anesthetics and without the use of systemic antibiotics. Our aim was to investigate the effect of an oxytetracycline-impregnated gauze drain on the incidence of alveolar osteitis (AO) and postoperative pain during the first week after mandibular third molar surgery.Two hundred consecutive patients undergoing third molar surgery under local anesthesia were randomized (...) into a drain group (n = 100), with an oxytetracycline-impregnated drain placed in the extraction socket, and a control group (n = 100). An experienced surgeon performed the surgery. Systemic antibiotics were not used.The incidence of AO was 23% in the control group and 5% in the drain group (P < .001). The risk of developing AO was approximately 6 times higher in the control group, and females had a 2.5 times higher risk compared with males. Patients in the control group had significantly more pain

2019 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

56. The efficacy of a non-leaching antibacterial central venous catheter - a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The efficacy of a non-leaching antibacterial central venous catheter - a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Antimicrobial coatings of central venous catheters (CVC) have the potential to reduce the risk of infectious complications. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a catheter with a non-leaching antimicrobial coating against catheter colonization and bloodstream infections (BSI).The study was conducted in two centers using a prospective, randomized, double-blind (...) of microbiologically confirmed catheter associated infections were similar (1.4% vs. 1.9%, P=0.7521), the coated CVC showed a significantly lower incidence of BSI (2.0% vs. 6.5%, P=0.0081) and a significantly lower mean incidence of BSI per 1000 catheter days (3.2 vs. 8.3, P=0.0356).The non-leaching antibacterial coating of the protective catheter was effective in reducing the incidence of BSI but not the rate of catheter colonization. However, the incidence of BSI is a better surrogate marker for the risk

2019 Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia Controlled trial quality: predicted high

57. Comparative evaluation of adjunctive antibiotics given post periodontal flap surgery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative evaluation of adjunctive antibiotics given post periodontal flap surgery. Antibiotics are known to improve clinical parameters in patients with periodontitis, so they should be capable of enhancing the surgical treatment outcome by improving clinical parameters when given adjunctively following periodontal flap surgery.Thirty subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: 10 patients without antibiotic prescription after flap surgery (...) was done using paired t-and unpaired t-tests.Reduction in PI, GI, PPD, and CAL after 2 weeks and 3 months from baseline in all the three groups was seen; intergroup comparison showed more reduction in PPD and GI and more gain in CAL in Groups II and III after 3 months when compared with Group I. No statistical difference was seen between Groups II and III.Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that antibiotic administration as an adjunct to conventional flap surgery helps in improving

2019 Journal of family medicine and primary care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

58. Prophylactic Vitamin K Administration in Neonates on Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Prophylactic Vitamin K Administration in Neonates on Prolonged Antibiotic Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. To compare the prevalence of vitamin K deficiency after intramuscular vitamin K or no treatment in neonates with sepsis on prolonged (>7 days) antibiotic therapy.Open label randomized controlled trial.Level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).Neonates with first episode of sepsis on antibiotics for ≥7 days were included. Neonates with clinical bleeding, vitamin K prior to start (...) of antibiotic therapy (except the birth dose), cholestasis or prenatally diagnosed bleeding disorder were excluded.Randomized to receive 1 mg vitamin K (n=41) or no vitamin K (n=39) on the 7th day of antibiotic therapy.Vitamin K deficiency defined as Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence (PIVKA-II) >2 ng/mL after 7 ± 2 days of enrolment.The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency was 100% (n=80) at enrolment and it remained 100% even after 7 ± 2 days of enrolment in both the groups.Neonates receiving prolonged

2019 Indian pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

59. Health-related quality of life of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy plus or minus prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the number of pneumonias for locally advanced head and neck cancer, the PANTAP study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Health-related quality of life of patients treated with chemoradiotherapy plus or minus prophylactic antibiotics to reduce the number of pneumonias for locally advanced head and neck cancer, the PANTAP study. The recent PANTAP trial showed that administration of prophylactic antibiotics in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LAHNC) patients treated with chemoradiotherapy reduced fever, hospitalization and costs. The current study describes the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on health (...) -related quality of life (HRQoL), another secondary endpoint of the trial.In this multicenter randomized trial, LAHNC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy received prophylactic antibiotics or standard care. HRQoL was assessed at baseline (before chemoradiotherapy), day 28 of chemoradiotherapy (one day before starting prophylactic antibiotics), the final day of radiotherapy, and 3.5 months after the end of chemoradiotherapy, using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC

2019 Oral oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

60. [Effect of Fuyanshu Capsules combined with antibiotics on inflammatory factors in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease]. (Abstract)

[Effect of Fuyanshu Capsules combined with antibiotics on inflammatory factors in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease]. To investigate the effect of Fuyanshu Capsules combined with Western medicine antibiotics on symptoms and inflammatory factors IL-10 and IL-1β in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and its possible mechanism. Totally 112 patients with pelvic inflammatory disease of damp-heat stagnation treated since April 2017 to April 2018 were randomly divided into treatment

2019 Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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