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41. Use of PNA FISH for blood cultures growing Gram-positive cocci in chains without a concomitant antibiotic stewardship intervention does not improve time to appropriate antibiotic therapy. (Abstract)

Use of PNA FISH for blood cultures growing Gram-positive cocci in chains without a concomitant antibiotic stewardship intervention does not improve time to appropriate antibiotic therapy. Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) is a rapid diagnostic assay that can identify certain organisms growing in blood cultures 30-90 min from the time of positive Gram-stain. Existing studies have demonstrated a clinical utility with this assay when antibiotic stewardship programs (...) assist clinicians with interpreting the results. However, the benefit of these rapid assays in the absence of concomitant antibiotic stewardship involvement is unclear. In this randomized study of 220 patients with enterococcal or streptococcal bacteremia, we found that PNA FISH, in the absence of concomitant input from an antibiotic stewardship program, had no impact on time to effective or optimal therapy, length of hospital stay, or in-hospital mortality. Our results suggest that in the absence

2017 Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

42. Gut Microbial Diversity in Antibiotic-Naive Children After Systemic Antibiotic Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (Full text)

Gut Microbial Diversity in Antibiotic-Naive Children After Systemic Antibiotic Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Antibiotic exposure can alter the gut microbiome. We evaluate the effects of azithromycin on the gut microbiome diversity of children from an antibiotic-naive community in Niger.A population-based sample of 80 children aged 1-60 months in the Dosso region of Niger was randomized to receive a single dose of either oral azithromycin or placebo. Fecal samples were collected (...) -2.51; P = .26).Oral administration of azithromycin definitively decreases the diversity of the gut microbiome of children in an antibiotic-naive community.NCT02048007.Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

43. Usefulness of Preoperative Mechanical Bowel Preparation in Patients with Colon Cancer who Undergo Elective Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Trial Using Oral Antibiotics. (Abstract)

Usefulness of Preoperative Mechanical Bowel Preparation in Patients with Colon Cancer who Undergo Elective Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Trial Using Oral Antibiotics. To prevent surgical site infection (SSI) in colorectal surgery, the combination of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP), oral antibiotic bowel preparation (OABP), and the intravenous antibiotics have been proposed as standard treatment. We conducted an RCT comparing the incidence of SSI between MBP + OABP and OABP alone after (...) receiving a single dose of intravenous antibiotics.The study group comprised 254 patients who underwent elective surgery for colon cancer. Patients were randomly assigned to receive MBP + OABP and intravenous antibiotics (MBP + OABP group) or to receive OABP and intravenous antibiotics (OABP alone group).Overall, 125 patients in MBP + OABP group and 126 patients in OABP alone group were eligible. Incisional SSI occurred in 3 patients (2.4%) in MBP + OABP group, and 8 patients (6.3%) in the OABP-alone

2019 Digestive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

44. PROCalcitonin-based algorithm for antibiotic use in Acute Pancreatitis (PROCAP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (Full text)

PROCalcitonin-based algorithm for antibiotic use in Acute Pancreatitis (PROCAP): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Differentiating infection from inflammation in acute pancreatitis is difficult, leading to overuse of antibiotics. Procalcitonin (PCT) measurement is a means of distinguishing infection from inflammation as levels rise rapidly in response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus of bacterial origin and normally fall after successful treatment. Algorithms based on PCT (...) measurement can differentiate bacterial sepsis from a systemic inflammatory response. The PROCalcitonin-based algorithm for antibiotic use in Acute Pancreatitis (PROCAP) trial tests the hypothesis that a PCT-based algorithm to guide initiation, continuation and discontinuation of antibiotics will lead to reduced antibiotic use in patients with acute pancreatitis and without an adverse effect on outcome.This is a single-centre, randomised, controlled, single-blind, two-arm pragmatic clinical and cost

2019 Trials Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

45. Antibacterial Activity of (Full text)

Antibacterial Activity of The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Lumbricus rubellus earthworms through inhibitory zone diameter to the growth of the bacterium Phorphyromonas gingivalis as the cause of periodontitis.This was an experimental study with randomised posttest-only control group design. The study was conducted at the Microbiology Research Center laboratory at the Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University, Indonesia. The study was conducted in vitro (...) of the Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria. The 6.25% earthworm extract showed no antibacterial activity against the growth of Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria.

2019 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

46. Comparative evaluation of adjunctive antibiotics given post periodontal flap surgery. (Full text)

Comparative evaluation of adjunctive antibiotics given post periodontal flap surgery. Antibiotics are known to improve clinical parameters in patients with periodontitis, so they should be capable of enhancing the surgical treatment outcome by improving clinical parameters when given adjunctively following periodontal flap surgery.Thirty subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: 10 patients without antibiotic prescription after flap surgery (...) was done using paired t-and unpaired t-tests.Reduction in PI, GI, PPD, and CAL after 2 weeks and 3 months from baseline in all the three groups was seen; intergroup comparison showed more reduction in PPD and GI and more gain in CAL in Groups II and III after 3 months when compared with Group I. No statistical difference was seen between Groups II and III.Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that antibiotic administration as an adjunct to conventional flap surgery helps in improving

2019 Journal of family medicine and primary care Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

47. Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections 12 Months After Communication and CRP Training: A Randomized Trial. (Full text)

Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections 12 Months After Communication and CRP Training: A Randomized Trial. C-reactive-protein (CRP) is useful for diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A large international trial documented that Internet-based training in CRP point-of-care testing, in enhanced communication skills, or both reduced antibiotic prescribing at 3 months, with risk ratios (RRs) of 0.68, 0.53, 0.38, respectively. We report the longer-term impact (...) in this trial.A total of 246 general practices in 6 countries were cluster-randomized to usual care, Internet-based training on CRP point-of-care testing, Internet-based training on enhanced communication skills and interactive booklet, or both interventions combined. The main outcome was antibiotic prescribing for RTIs after 12 months.Of 228 practices providing 3-month data, 74% provided 12-month data, with no demonstrable attrition bias. Between 3 months and 12 months, prescribing for RTIs decreased

2019 Annals of family medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

48. Early switching of antibiotic therapy from intravenous to oral using a combination of education, pocket-sized cards and switch advice: A practical intervention resulting in reduced length of hospital stay. (Full text)

Early switching of antibiotic therapy from intravenous to oral using a combination of education, pocket-sized cards and switch advice: A practical intervention resulting in reduced length of hospital stay. To assess the effectiveness of a combined intervention on the timing and rate of switching from intravenous (IV) to oral antibiotic therapy.The study used a historically-controlled prospective intervention design. Interventions consisted of educating physicians, handing out pocket-sized cards (...) and providing switch advice in the electronic patient record (EPR). All patients hospitalized at the surgery department who were treated with IV antibiotics for at least 24 h and who fulfilled the switch criteria within 72 h of IV treatment were included. Outcomes before and during the intervention were compared.An early IV to oral switch took place in 35.4% (35/99) of the antibiotic courses in the baseline period and in 67.7% (42/62) of the antibiotic courses in the intervention period (odds ratio

2019 International journal of antimicrobial agents Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

49. [Therapeutic of septic children with purpuric presentation with two antibiotic schedules] (Full text)

[Therapeutic of septic children with purpuric presentation with two antibiotic schedules] OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of two antibiotic schedules, ceftriaxone alone and the combined use of ampicillin and chloramphenicol, in the treatment of septic children with purpuric presentation.METHODS: A randomized open clinical trial was conducted including septic children with purpuric presentation treated at a pediatric intensive care unit from April 1988 to June 1992. All (...) cases with systemic purpura standing for less than a week were included in one of two groups, except for those recently hospitalized or with previous hemorrhagic disturbs. Patients in group A received ampicillin and chloramphenicol and those in group B were given ceftriaxone. Quantitative parameters were adopted to compare the efficacy of the two antibiotic schedules: sensitivity of bacteria isolated at blood and liquor cultures, complications, therapeutic procedures, period of hospitalization

2019 Jornal de pediatria Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

50. Evaluation of postoperative pain in infected root canals after using double antibiotic paste versus calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medication: A randomized controlled trial. (Full text)

Evaluation of postoperative pain in infected root canals after using double antibiotic paste versus calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medication: A randomized controlled trial. Background: Postoperative pain is defined as pain of any degree after initiation of endodontic treatment either intra-appointment or post-obturation and is considered an undesirable occurrence for both patient and dentist. It was suggested that bacterial injury is probably the major cause of pain. Intra-canal medicaments (...) are widely used to kill any bacteria surviving after instrumentation and irrigation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of double antibiotic paste versus calcium hydroxide used as intra-canal medication in reducing postoperative pain. Methods: 36 patients with single rooted necrotic premolars with apical periodontitis were randomly assigned into two groups according to the intra-canal medication used: calcium hydroxide group (CH) and double antibiotic paste group (DAP). Preoperative pain

2019 F1000Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

51. Oral versus single intravenous bolus dose antibiotic prophylaxis against postoperative surgical site infection in external dacryocystorhinostomy for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction - A randomized study. (Full text)

Oral versus single intravenous bolus dose antibiotic prophylaxis against postoperative surgical site infection in external dacryocystorhinostomy for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction - A randomized study. To compare the efficacy of a single perioperative bolus dose of intravenous antibiotic versus postoperative oral antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) in external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO (...) demonstrate that a single bolus dose of perioperative intravenous antibiotic offers adequate prophylaxis against postoperative SSI and compares favorably with the more commonly used oral antibiotic prophylaxis in external DCR for PANDO in our population and our practice scenario.

2019 Indian journal of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

52. Comparative Evaluation of Three Different Materials: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Triple Antibiotic Paste, and Abscess Remedy on Apical Development of Vital Young Permanent Teeth. (Full text)

Comparative Evaluation of Three Different Materials: Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Triple Antibiotic Paste, and Abscess Remedy on Apical Development of Vital Young Permanent Teeth. The aim of the study is to compare the success rate of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Triple antibiotic paste, and Abscess remedy in apical development of vital young permanent teeth.A total of 60 children aged 6-14 years were selected and were randomly divided into three groups, each comprising of 20 children (...) . Group I, Group II, and Group III in which MTA (Pro root), triple antibiotic paste (3Mix MP), and Abscess remedy (Product Dentaire, Switzerland) was used pulpotomy medicament. The children were recalled 1, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months for clinical and radiographic evaluation and were designed as single-blinded randomized clinical trial.Chi-square test.The follow-up evaluations revealed that 56 teeth appeared to be clinically and radiographically successful at 24 months' postoperative evaluation. Four

2019 Contemporary clinical dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

53. Effect of a Single Preoperative Dose of Oral Antibiotic to Reduce the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection Following Below-Knee Dermatological Flap and Graft Repair. (Full text)

Effect of a Single Preoperative Dose of Oral Antibiotic to Reduce the Incidence of Surgical Site Infection Following Below-Knee Dermatological Flap and Graft Repair. Surgical site infection (SSI) rates for below-knee dermatological surgery are unacceptably high, particularly following complex flap and graft closures. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis for these surgical cases is uncertain.To determine whether SSI following complex dermatological closures on the leg could be reduced (...) by antibiotic prophylaxis administered as a single oral preoperative dose.A total of 115 participants were randomized to 2 g of oral cephalexin or placebo 40-60 minutes prior to surgical incision in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at a primary care skin cancer clinic in North Queensland, Australia.Overall 17/55 (30.9%) controls and 14/55 (25.5%) intervention participants developed infection (P = 0.525). There was no difference between the study groups in adverse symptoms

2019 Dermatology practical & conceptual Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

54. [Effect of Fuyanshu Capsules combined with antibiotics on inflammatory factors in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease]. (Abstract)

[Effect of Fuyanshu Capsules combined with antibiotics on inflammatory factors in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease]. To investigate the effect of Fuyanshu Capsules combined with Western medicine antibiotics on symptoms and inflammatory factors IL-10 and IL-1β in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and its possible mechanism. Totally 112 patients with pelvic inflammatory disease of damp-heat stagnation treated since April 2017 to April 2018 were randomly divided into treatment

2019 Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

55. Prebiotic supplementation over a cold season and during antibiotic treatment specifically modulates the gut microbiota composition of 3-6 year-old children. (Abstract)

Prebiotic supplementation over a cold season and during antibiotic treatment specifically modulates the gut microbiota composition of 3-6 year-old children. Supplementing kindergarten children during a cold season with a prebiotic inulin-type fructans product with shorter and longer fructan chains has been shown to reduce febrile episodes requiring medical attention and to lower the incidence of sinusitis. These beneficial effects may be connected to the specific modulation of children's gut (...) microbiota. By applying quantitative and qualitative microbiota analysis this study aimed at characterising the gut microbiota composition and at exploring effects of prebiotic intervention on the gut microbiota during a 24-weeks intervention and during antibiotic treatment in healthy children. The study was a randomised, placebo-controlled trial with 258 healthy children aged 3 to 6 years consuming 6 g/day prebiotic inulin-type fructans or maltodextrin. During the course of the study, faecal samples

2019 Beneficial microbes Controlled trial quality: uncertain

56. Postoperative pain and antibacterial effect of 980 nm diode laser versus conventional endodontic treatment in necrotic teeth with chronic periapical lesions: A randomized control trial. (Full text)

Postoperative pain and antibacterial effect of 980 nm diode laser versus conventional endodontic treatment in necrotic teeth with chronic periapical lesions: A randomized control trial. Background: Many challenges encounter the endodontist, especially when dealing with necrotic teeth with chronic periapical lesions. Postoperative pain may be induced following conventional endodontic therapy and total eradication of the bacteria is almost unachievable even with recently available techniques

2019 F1000Research Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

57. The Use of Antibiotics in Gynecological Endoscopy. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. (Abstract)

The Use of Antibiotics in Gynecological Endoscopy. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. 27679222 2019 11 20 1553-4669 22 6S 2015 Nov-Dec Journal of minimally invasive gynecology J Minim Invasive Gynecol The Use of Antibiotics in Gynecological Endoscopy. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. S37 S1553-4650(15)00712-8 10.1016/j.jmig.2015.08.104 Moiety F F Ob/Gyn, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. Salem H H Ob/Gyn, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2019 Journal of minimally invasive gynecology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

58. Procalcitonin-Guided Treatment on Duration of Antibiotic Therapy and Cost in Septic Patients (PRODA): a Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial. (Full text)

Procalcitonin-Guided Treatment on Duration of Antibiotic Therapy and Cost in Septic Patients (PRODA): a Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial. The objective of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic discontinuation in critically ill patients with sepsis in a country with a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and a national health insurance system.In a multi-center randomized controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned (...) to a PCT group (stopping antibiotics based on a predefined cut-off range of PCT) or a control group. The primary end-point was antibiotic duration. We also performed a cost-minimization analysis of PCT-guided antibiotic discontinuation.The two groups (23 in the PCT group and 29 in the control group) had similar demographic and clinical characteristics except for need for renal replacement therapy on ICU admission (46% vs. 14%; P = 0.010). In the per-protocol analysis, the median duration of antibiotic

2019 Journal of Korean medical science Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

59. Clinical and microbiological effects of multiple applications of antibacterial photodynamic therapy in periodontal maintenance patients. A randomized controlled clinical study. (Abstract)

Clinical and microbiological effects of multiple applications of antibacterial photodynamic therapy in periodontal maintenance patients. A randomized controlled clinical study. At present, very limited data are available on the clinical and microbiological outcomes obtained following repeated application of aPDT following one single mechanical debridement.To evaluate clinically and microbiologically the outcomes following one single session of subgingival mechanical debridement (scaling

2019 Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

60. Cost analysis of antibiotic therapy versus appendectomy for treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis: 5-year results of the APPAC randomized clinical trial. (Full text)

Cost analysis of antibiotic therapy versus appendectomy for treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis: 5-year results of the APPAC randomized clinical trial. The efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis has been established at long-term follow-up with the majority of recurrences shown to occur within the first year. Overall costs of antibiotics are significantly lower compared with appendectomy at short-term follow-up, but long-term durability (...) of these cost savings is unclear. The study objective was to compare the long-term overall costs of antibiotic therapy versus appendectomy in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis in the APPAC (APPendicitis ACuta) trial at 5 years.This multicentre, non-inferiority randomized clinical trial randomly assigned 530 adult patients with CT-confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis to appendectomy or antibiotic treatment at six Finnish hospitals. All major costs during the 5-year follow-up were

2019 PloS one Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

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