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181. A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. (Abstract)

A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. 29282969 2018 01 01 2018 12 02 1533-4406 377 26 2017 12 28 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. A Trial of Antibiotics for Smaller Skin Abscesses. e36 10.1056/NEJMc1711124 Nurjadi Dennis D University Hospitals, Heidelberg, Germany Heeg Klaus K University Hospitals, Heidelberg, Germany Zanger Philipp P University Hospitals, Heidelberg, Germany philipp.zanger@uni-heidelberg.d Staph Trav Network eng Letter Comment United States N

2018 The New England journal of medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

182. Antibacterial Effect and Tensile Bond Strength of Self-etching Adhesive Resins with and without Methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium Bromide: An (Abstract)

Antibacterial Effect and Tensile Bond Strength of Self-etching Adhesive Resins with and without Methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium Bromide: An Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial activity of a self-etching primer containing antibacterial monomer methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB) (Clearfil protect bond) with a conventional self-etching primer without MDPB (Clearfil SE bond) against Streptococcus mutans and the effect of incorporation of MDPB (...) on the tensile bond strength of the experimental self-etching primer (Clearfil protect bond). Materials and methods: The antibacterial activity of the self-etching primers was assessed using agar disk diffusion method and the diameters of the zones of inhibition were measured and ranked. For tensile bond strength testing, 20 noncarious human molars were selected and randomly divided into two groups comprising 10 teeth in each group. Group I specimens were treated with Clearfil SE bond (without MDPB). Group

2018 The journal of contemporary dental practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

183. [The study of the rational use of antibiotics after nasal surgery]. (Abstract)

[The study of the rational use of antibiotics after nasal surgery]. Objective:To study whether the antibiotics should be used in the patients with or without chronic nasal sinusitis after the nasal surgery,and how to rationally use it.Method:Study design:prospective stratified randomized controlled study.Patients with sinusitis were divided into three groups.A group was without antibiotics,B group was with standard antibiotics using ,and C group was with prolonged antibiotics using.Patients (...) without sinusitis were divided into D group without antibiotics,E group with standard antibiotics using,and F group with prolonged antibiotics using. Observe the postoperative infection rate in each group and compare them.Result:The infection rates were 3.53%,2.67%,0.00% in A,B and C group, and there was no significant differences between three groups. The infection rates were 1.22%,0.00%,1.39% in D,E and F group,and there was no significant differences between them.Conclusion: There was no influence

2018 Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

184. Re: 'Is a randomized trial of a short course of aminoglycoside added to β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment in critically ill patients with sepsis justified?' Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. (Full text)

Re: 'Is a randomized trial of a short course of aminoglycoside added to β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment in critically ill patients with sepsis justified?' Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. 29309932 2018 08 09 2018 12 02 1469-0691 24 6 2018 06 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Re: 'Is a randomized trial of a short course of aminoglycoside (...) added to β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment in critically ill patients with sepsis justified?' Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. 666-667 S1198-743X(17)30714-0 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.12.019 Heffernan A A School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia; Centre for Translational Anti-infective Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia. Lipman J J University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty

2018 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

185. Differential efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in adolescent/young adult (AYA) and child patients. (Abstract)

Differential efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in adolescent/young adult (AYA) and child patients. Survival rates in adolescent/young adult (AYA) patients with malignant diseases have improved with the introduction of pediatric-type chemotherapy; however, the higher frequency of treatment-related complications, including infections, remains a major challenge. We hypothesized that the efficacy of antibiotics may differ between AYA and younger children. We aimed (...) to evaluate differences in the efficacy of antibiotics between them by retrospectively analyzing patients registered in previous first-line antibiotic comparative studies on febrile neutropenia (FN). Patients were classified into two groups: patients younger than 15 years of age (children group) and those aged 15 years or older (AYA group). The efficacy of antibiotic therapy was compared between groups. Success of therapy was defined as resolution of febrile episodes and clinical signs of infection within

2018 International journal of hematology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

186. Participant experiences of clean intermittent self-catheterisation, urinary tract infections and antibiotic use on the ANTIC trial - A qualitative study. (Full text)

Participant experiences of clean intermittent self-catheterisation, urinary tract infections and antibiotic use on the ANTIC trial - A qualitative study. Recurrent urinary tract infections are a commonly reported problem in people who use clean intermittent self-catheterisation. Yet there is a lack of knowledge regarding both the impact on people's lives, the use of prophylactic anti-biotics and perceptions of patients on their use.To explore the views and experiences of adults who use clean (...) intermittent self-catheterisation for long-term bladder conditions, with a focus on urinary tract infection experience and prophylactic antibiotic use.A qualitative descriptive study.Twenty-six semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with individuals recruited from the ANTIC Trial (Antibiotic treatment for intermittent bladder catheterisation: A randomised controlled trial of once daily prophylaxis). Participants were intermittent self-catheter users aged 18 years or older. Interviews took

2018 International journal of nursing studies Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

187. Value of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Percutaneous Gastrostomy: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial. (Abstract)

Value of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Percutaneous Gastrostomy: A Double-Blind Randomized Trial. To compare peristomal infection rates following percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) after a single dose of prophylactic antibiotics versus placebo and evaluate rates of peristomal infection in patients receiving concurrent antibiotics.This single-center, randomized trial (2012-2016) enrolled 122 patients referred for image-guided PG; all enrolled patients completed the study. Of enrolled patients, 68 were (...) randomly assigned to receive either antibiotics (n = 34) or placebo (n = 34) before PG placement. The remaining 54 patients were taking pre-existing antibiotics and were assigned to an observation arm. Stoma sites were assessed for signs of infection by a blinded evaluator at early (between 3-5 d and 7-10 d) and late (between 14-17 d and 28-30 d) time points after the procedure. The primary outcome was peristomal infection.Under intention-to-treat analysis, early infection rate was 11.8% (4/34 patients

2018 Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR Controlled trial quality: predicted high

188. Effect of a training and educational intervention for physicians and caregivers on antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in children at primary care facilities in rural China: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. (Full text)

Effect of a training and educational intervention for physicians and caregivers on antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in children at primary care facilities in rural China: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing contributes to the generation of drug resistance worldwide, and is particularly common in China. We assessed the effectiveness of an antimicrobial stewardship programme aiming to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing (...) (absolute risk reduction in antibiotic prescribing) of -29% (95% CI -42 to -16; p=0·0002).In China's primary care setting, pragmatic interventions on antimicrobial stewardship targeting providers and caregivers substantially reduced prescribing of antibiotics for childhood upper respiratory tract infections.Department of International Development (UKAID) through Communicable Diseases Health Service Delivery.Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under

2018 The Lancet. Global health Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

189. Never put equipoise in appendix! Final results of ASAA (antibiotics vs. surgery for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults) randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Never put equipoise in appendix! Final results of ASAA (antibiotics vs. surgery for uncomplicated acute appendicitis in adults) randomized controlled trial. Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency; however, its etiology and diagnosis are still discussed with a considerable proportion of wrong diagnosis resulting in appendectomies for non inflamed appendix. Moreover, the biologic function of the appendix is still unclear. For uncomplicated acute appendicitis the conservative (...) treatment with antibiotics has been proposed with interesting results. The aim of this study was to compare surgical treatment vs. antibiotics in uncomplicated acute appendicitis. This is a monocentric randomized controlled trial comparing surgery with antibiotic therapy in adults with uncomplicated acute appendicitis. The primary outcome was the success rate (resolution of symptoms within 2 weeks and no need for further treatments); secondary outcomes were complication rate; negative appendectomy rate

2018 Updates in surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

190. Could local antibiotics be included in the treatment of acute anal fissure? (Full text)

Could local antibiotics be included in the treatment of acute anal fissure? Acute anal fissure is a very common disorder of the anorectal region. Its most widely used treatment method is the medications given in addition to conservative therapies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of local metronidazole use in the treatment of acute anal fissure on the symptoms and remission processes of the patients.This was a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study (...) Analogue Scale scores, there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups at the end of weeks 2 and 4 (p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). In Group 1, 28 (56%) patients recovered, but no recovery was observed in 22 (44%) patients. In Group 2, 43 (86%) patients recovered, whereas 7 (14%) patients had no recovery (p=0.004).The topical antimicrobial treatment with metronidazole as an addition to the classical medical treatments in acute anal fissure is an effective and safe practice

2018 Turkish Journal of Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

191. Short-term Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of MRX-I, an Oxazolidinone Antibacterial Agent, in Healthy Chinese Subjects. (Abstract)

Short-term Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of MRX-I, an Oxazolidinone Antibacterial Agent, in Healthy Chinese Subjects. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetic profiles of MRX-I tablet, an oxazolidinone antibacterial agent, in healthy Chinese subjects.The study was composed of 3 sequential periods. Period 1 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, sequential ascending dose (50 to 1800 mg) study. Period 2 included one arm as a randomized, open

2018 Clinical therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

192. Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. (Abstract)

Use of fosfomycin as targeted antibiotic prophylaxis before prostate biopsy: A prospective randomized study. To investigate whether switching ciprofloxacin to fosfomycin in the case of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal bacteria influences the incidence of infectious complications after transrectal prostate biopsy.From December 2015 until December 2017, patients undergoing prostate biopsy were randomly assigned to a control group or an intervention group in a prospective, open-label fashion (...) in the intervention group (P = 0.09).This represents the first prospective randomized study using rectal cultures for targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. Study findings show promising results for use of fosfomycin in patients with fluoroquinolone resistance.© 2018 The Japanese Urological Association.

2018 International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

193. Study design considerations for the Standardized Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations 2 (STOP2): A trial to compare intravenous antibiotic treatment durations in CF. (Full text)

Study design considerations for the Standardized Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations 2 (STOP2): A trial to compare intravenous antibiotic treatment durations in CF. Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in cystic fibrosis (CF) are common and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Duration of IV antibiotic therapy to treat PEx varies widely in the US, and there are few data to guide treatment decisions.We combined a survey of CF stakeholders with retrospective analyses of a recent observational study (...) of CF PEx to design a multicenter, randomized, prospective study comparing the efficacy and safety of different durations of IV antibiotics for PEx to meet the needs of people with CF and their caregivers.IV antibiotic duration was cited as the most important PEx research question by responding CF physicians and top concern among surveyed CF patients/caregivers. During PEx, forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1% predicted) and symptom responses at 7-10days of IV antibiotics identified two distinct

2018 Contemporary clinical trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

194. Effect of Commonly Used Pediatric Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity in Preschool Children in Burkina Faso: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (Full text)

Effect of Commonly Used Pediatric Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity in Preschool Children in Burkina Faso: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Exposure to antibiotics may result in alterations to the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, few trials have been conducted, and observational studies are subject to confounding by indication. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of 3 commonly used pediatric antibiotics on the intestinal microbiome in healthy (...) preschool children.Children aged 6-59 months were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a 5-day course of 1 of 3 antibiotics, including amoxicillin (25 mg/kg/d twice-daily doses), azithromycin (10 mg/kg dose on day 1 and then 5 mg/kg once daily for 4 days), cotrimoxazole (240 mg once daily), or placebo. Rectal swabs were obtained at baseline and 5 days after the last dose and were processed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The prespecified primary outcome was inverse Simpson's α-diversity index.Post-treatment

2018 Open forum infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: predicted high PubMed abstract

195. Azithromycin-based Extended-Spectrum Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean: Role of Placental Colonization with Genital Ureaplasmas and Mycoplasmas. (Abstract)

Azithromycin-based Extended-Spectrum Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean: Role of Placental Colonization with Genital Ureaplasmas and Mycoplasmas.  To explore whether the effect of azithromycin (AZI) on postcesarean infections varied by the presence/absence of genital mycoplasmataceae placental colonization. This was a single-center substudy of multicenter double-blind C/SOAP (Cesarean Section Optimal Antibiotic Prophylaxis) trial of women randomized to AZI or placebo (+cefazolin) antibiotic

2018 American journal of perinatology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

196. Effects of Zinc Combined with Probiotics on Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea Secondary to Childhood Pneumonia. (Abstract)

Effects of Zinc Combined with Probiotics on Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea Secondary to Childhood Pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of zinc combined with probiotics (Bifico) on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) secondary to pneumonia.A total of 50 patients with AAD secondary to pneumonia were randomly divided into a probiotics group (Bifico) and a combined group (zinc combined with Bifico) and 25 pneumonia patients without AAD as the control group. Serum levels

2018 Journal of tropical pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

197. Low Concentration of Antibiotics Modulates Gut Microbiota at Different Levels in Pre-Weaning Dairy Calves. (Full text)

Low Concentration of Antibiotics Modulates Gut Microbiota at Different Levels in Pre-Weaning Dairy Calves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding milk replacer (MR) with two different antibiotics treatments on the gut microbiota of pre-weaning calves. Twelve (12) Holstein male calves at 1-day-old were randomly assigned to: milk replacer without antibiotics (CON), milk replacer plus low cocktail of antibiotics (LCA) concentration (penicillin 0.024 mg/L, streptomycin 0.025 (...) mg/L, tetracycline 0.1 mg/L, ceftiofur 0.33 mg/L), and milk replacer plus a low concentration of single antibiotic (LSA; ceftiofur 0.33 mg/L). All the calves were harvested at 35-day-old, and the digesta from the ileum and colon was collected in addition to fecal samples. Samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq platform. Results showed that there were significant differences among treatments in the ileum, where LCA significantly reduced the relative abundance

2018 Microorganisms Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

198. Probiotic Yogurt for the Prevention of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea in Adults: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. (Abstract)

Probiotic Yogurt for the Prevention of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea in Adults: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. To evaluate the effect of yogurt supplemented with probiotic bacteria on the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in hospitalized patients.Diarrhea following antibiotic administration is a frequent clinical problem. The usefulness of probiotics for the prevention of AAD in the hospitalized adult population remains unclear.A randomized, double-blind (...) , placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in hospitalized patients who started antibiotic treatment. Patients were randomized (2:2:1) to receive a daily amount of 200 mL of placebo-yogurt (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), 200 mL of probiotic yogurt (previous plus Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei Lc-01 or no yogurt (unblinded control) within 48 hours of beginning

2018 Journal of clinical gastroenterology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

199. Comparative evaluation of antibacterial effect of nanoparticles and lasers against Endodontic Microbiota: An in vitro study. (Full text)

Comparative evaluation of antibacterial effect of nanoparticles and lasers against Endodontic Microbiota: An in vitro study. Present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating antimicrobial efficacy of silver (AgNP) and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with and without Nd: YAG laser (L) irradiation against experimentally inoculated Enterococcus faecalis in infected human root dentin.120 extracted single rooted human teeth were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 24 hrs. The teeth were

2018 Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain PubMed abstract

200. The Effects of Two New Dual Zinc plus Arginine Dentifrices in Reducing Oral Bacteria in Multiple Locations in the Mouth: 12-Hour Whole Mouth Antibacterial Protection for Whole Mouth Health. (Abstract)

The Effects of Two New Dual Zinc plus Arginine Dentifrices in Reducing Oral Bacteria in Multiple Locations in the Mouth: 12-Hour Whole Mouth Antibacterial Protection for Whole Mouth Health. To compare the effects of two new fluoride toothpastes with Dual Zinc plus Arginine to the effects of a fluoride control toothpaste in reducing bacteria in oral biofilm on teeth and in multiple soft tissue locations, as well as in saliva, 12 hours after 14 and 29 days of product use.A randomized, single (...) with fluoride alone, 12 hours after 29 days of twice-daily tooth brushing. The results demonstrate that regular and continued twice-daily use of these new toothpastes provide 12-hour whole mouth antibacterial protection for whole mouth health.Copyright© by the YES Group, Inc.

2018 The Journal of clinical dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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