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181. Study design considerations for the Standardized Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations 2 (STOP2): A trial to compare intravenous antibiotic treatment durations in CF. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Study design considerations for the Standardized Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations 2 (STOP2): A trial to compare intravenous antibiotic treatment durations in CF. Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx) in cystic fibrosis (CF) are common and contribute to morbidity and mortality. Duration of IV antibiotic therapy to treat PEx varies widely in the US, and there are few data to guide treatment decisions.We combined a survey of CF stakeholders with retrospective analyses of a recent observational study (...) of CF PEx to design a multicenter, randomized, prospective study comparing the efficacy and safety of different durations of IV antibiotics for PEx to meet the needs of people with CF and their caregivers.IV antibiotic duration was cited as the most important PEx research question by responding CF physicians and top concern among surveyed CF patients/caregivers. During PEx, forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1% predicted) and symptom responses at 7-10days of IV antibiotics identified two distinct

2018 Contemporary clinical trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

182. Extended antibiotic therapy versus placebo after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for mild and moderate acute calculous cholecystitis: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Extended antibiotic therapy versus placebo after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for mild and moderate acute calculous cholecystitis: A randomized double-blind clinical trial. Acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) is the most common complication of cholelithiasis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment in mild and moderate forms. Currently there is consensus for the use of antibiotics in the preoperative phase of ACC. However, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery (...) remains undefined with a low level of scientific evidence.The CHART (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial) study is a single-center, prospective, double blind, and randomized trial. Patients with mild to moderate ACC operated by LC were randomly assigned to receive antibiotic (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) or placebo treatment for 5 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was postoperative infectious complications. Secondary endpoints were as follows: (1) duration of hospital stay, (2

2018 Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

183. Evaluating the Duration of Prophylactic Post-Operative Antibiotic Agents after Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Closed Fractures. (Abstract)

Evaluating the Duration of Prophylactic Post-Operative Antibiotic Agents after Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Closed Fractures. The importance of timely pre-operative antibiotic agents for effective surgical prophylaxis has been established but the optimal duration of antimicrobial coverage post-operatively has not yet been defined clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine if prophylactic post- operative cefazolin for 23 hours decreases the risk of surgical site infection (SSI (...) . Patients with diabetes mellitus were 4.33 times more likely to develop an SSI (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-14.38; p = 0.02). Patients with a risk score of two or more were 3.14 times more likely to develop an infection (95% CI, 1.02-9.68; p < 0.05).Although not statistically significant, in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial, patients who were treated with a 23-hour post-operative regimen of antibiotics after ORIF were less likely to develop SSIs. Patients with diabetes

2018 Surgical infections Controlled trial quality: predicted high

184. Cefepime vs. cefoperazone/sulbactam in combination with amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia. (Abstract)

Cefepime vs. cefoperazone/sulbactam in combination with amikacin as empirical antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenia. Beta lactams are standard empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia (FN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cefepime monotherapy compared with cefoperazone/sulbactam plus amikacin (CS + A) for empirical treatment of high risk FN.One hundred seventy-five patients with 336 FN episodes were randomized to receive either cefepime (2 g q8h for adults (...) and 50 mg/kg q8h for children) or CS (2 g q8h for adults and 50 mg/kg q8h for children) plus amikacin (15 mg/kg once a day). Positive response was defined as afebrile within 72 h of starting antibiotics, persistent afebrile status more than 48 h and no requirement of second-line antibiotics and antifungal agents.Three hundred thirty-six episodes were assessable for efficacy (168 cefepime, 168 CS + A). The positive response to antibiotics was identical for cefepime (53%) and CS + A (53%). Positive

2018 Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Controlled trial quality: uncertain

185. Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli mastitis. (Abstract)

Randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli mastitis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of enrofloxacin (ERFX) as a second-line antibiotic for treatment of acute Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis. Forty-two cows with naturally occurring acute E. coli mastitis were enrolled. On the first day of treatment (day 0), empirically selected antibiotics (oxytetracycline: n (...)  = 32, kanamycin: n = 10) were administered. Although systemic signs improved in 10 cows (first-line group), the signs remained unchanged or worsened in 32 cows on day 1, including two cows that were found dead. The 30 surviving cows were randomly assigned to second-line groups constituting an ERFX group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 11) that was treated with other antibiotics. Response to each treatment was evaluated by measuring clinical signs from day 0 to day 3, subsequent quarter milk

2018 Animal Science Journal = Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho Controlled trial quality: uncertain

186. Protocol for Antibiotic Administration in Mandibular Trauma: A Prospective Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protocol for Antibiotic Administration in Mandibular Trauma: A Prospective Clinical Trial. The purpose of this study is to determine the necessity and/or effectiveness of antibiotics in cases with maxillofacial trauma and emphasise the administration of antibiotics in maxillofacial fractures indicated for open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF).This study is a single blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial composed of subjects who presented with non-comminuted, linear fractures (...) of the mandible and were treated by ORIF via an intraoral approach. One hundred and forty-four subjects (2011-2015) who belonged to the above entities were randomly categorized into 2 groups of 72 each, on lottery method. Patients in Group A were administered a 5 day course of antibiotic (1 day IV antibiotics followed by 4 days oral) while patients in Group B received a 1 day course of IV antibiotic (1 dose post op). Both the groups were followed up on the 1st day, 3rd day, 1st week, 1st month, 3rd month post

2018 Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

187. Differential efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in adolescent/young adult (AYA) and child patients. (Abstract)

Differential efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy for febrile neutropenia in adolescent/young adult (AYA) and child patients. Survival rates in adolescent/young adult (AYA) patients with malignant diseases have improved with the introduction of pediatric-type chemotherapy; however, the higher frequency of treatment-related complications, including infections, remains a major challenge. We hypothesized that the efficacy of antibiotics may differ between AYA and younger children. We aimed (...) to evaluate differences in the efficacy of antibiotics between them by retrospectively analyzing patients registered in previous first-line antibiotic comparative studies on febrile neutropenia (FN). Patients were classified into two groups: patients younger than 15 years of age (children group) and those aged 15 years or older (AYA group). The efficacy of antibiotic therapy was compared between groups. Success of therapy was defined as resolution of febrile episodes and clinical signs of infection within

2018 International journal of hematology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

188. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey. (Abstract)

Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey. Contact lens induced dry eye affects approximately 50% of contact lens wearers. The aim was to assess the effects of Manuka (Leptospermum sp.) honey eye drops (Optimel, Melcare, Australia) on dry eye in contact lens wearers. The safety of the honey eye drops in contact lens wear and contact lens wearers' compliance were also evaluated.Prospective, randomised, cross over study, examiner masked, pilot treatment trial.Twenty-four

2018 Contact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

189. Re: Six Weeks of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen is Not Clinically Beneficial: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. (Abstract)

Re: Six Weeks of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen is Not Clinically Beneficial: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. 29539905 2018 12 21 2018 12 21 1527-3792 197 5 2017 05 The Journal of urology J. Urol. Re: Six Weeks of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Therapy for Patients with Elevated Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen is Not Clinically Beneficial: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. 1276 S0022-5347(17)30279-3 10.1016/j.juro

2018 The Journal of urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

190. [The study of the rational use of antibiotics after nasal surgery]. (Abstract)

[The study of the rational use of antibiotics after nasal surgery]. Objective:To study whether the antibiotics should be used in the patients with or without chronic nasal sinusitis after the nasal surgery,and how to rationally use it.Method:Study design:prospective stratified randomized controlled study.Patients with sinusitis were divided into three groups.A group was without antibiotics,B group was with standard antibiotics using ,and C group was with prolonged antibiotics using.Patients (...) without sinusitis were divided into D group without antibiotics,E group with standard antibiotics using,and F group with prolonged antibiotics using. Observe the postoperative infection rate in each group and compare them.Result:The infection rates were 3.53%,2.67%,0.00% in A,B and C group, and there was no significant differences between three groups. The infection rates were 1.22%,0.00%,1.39% in D,E and F group,and there was no significant differences between them.Conclusion: There was no influence

2018 Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

191. Impact of oral antibiotics on health-related quality of life after mandibular third molar surgery: An observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of oral antibiotics on health-related quality of life after mandibular third molar surgery: An observational study. To compare the impact of antibiotics on health-related quality of life (QoL) outcomes following third molar surgery.The study population consisted of 135 subjects that required surgical extraction of mandibular third molar under local anesthesia and met the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomized into three study groups of 45 subjects each: Group A - extended (...) exerted a negative influence on patient's QoL across various physical, social, and psychological aspects of life. Comparing the three groups, Group A showed a slightly better QoL score; although, there was no statistically significant difference among them. Studies have shown better clinical recovery following administration of antibiotics after third molar surgery.There was a significant deterioration in OHRQoL in the immediate postoperative period, particularly postoperative days 1 and 3 following

2018 Nigerian journal of clinical practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

192. A novel cysteine-linked antibacterial surface coating significantly inhibits bacterial colonization of nasal silicone prongs in a phase one pre-clinical trial. (Abstract)

A novel cysteine-linked antibacterial surface coating significantly inhibits bacterial colonization of nasal silicone prongs in a phase one pre-clinical trial. Ventilator associated pneumonia and sepsis are frequent complications in neonatal care. Bacterial colonization of medical devices and interfaces used for respiratory support may contribute by functioning as a bacterial reservoir seeding bacteria into airways. We have developed an antibacterial surface coating based on a cysteine ligand (...) covalently coupled via a spacer to a carboxylic backbone layer on an acrylic acid grafted silicone surface. This coating was applied on a commercially available nasal prong and the antibacterial effect was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in a first-in-human phase 1 trial. The coated nasal prongs had strong antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. In a randomized pre-clinical trial study of 24 + 24 healthy adult volunteers who carried coated or non-coated

2018 Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications Controlled trial quality: uncertain

193. Topical Antibacterial Agent for Treatment of Adult and Pediatric Patients With Impetigo: Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 Clinical Trials. (Abstract)

Topical Antibacterial Agent for Treatment of Adult and Pediatric Patients With Impetigo: Pooled Analysis of Phase 3 Clinical Trials. Ozenoxacin is a novel topical antibacterial agent with potent bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been developed as a 1% cream for treatment of impetigo. This article presents pooled results of pivotal clinical trials of ozenoxacin with the objective of evaluating the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of ozenoxacin 1% cream after twice

2018 Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD Controlled trial quality: uncertain

194. Continuous alternating inhaled antibiotics for chronic pseudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous alternating inhaled antibiotics for chronic pseudomonal infection in cystic fibrosis. Inhaled antibiotics are standard of care for treating chronic pseudomonal respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients, initially approved for intermittent administration. However, use of continuous inhaled antibiotic regimens of differing combinations is growing.This double-blind trial compared continuous alternating therapy (CAT) to an intermittent treatment regimen. Subjects were treated

2018 Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

195. A new enhanced antibiotic treatment for early and late syphilis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A new enhanced antibiotic treatment for early and late syphilis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an enhanced treatment regimen for syphilis with the addition of doxycycline and ceftriaxone to the conventional benzathine penicillin G (BPG) treatment. Sixty-nine syphilis patients were recruited and were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 (38 patients) received standard therapy and group 2 (31 patients) received the enhanced therapy. All patients were followed-up (...) . In contrast, one patient in group 1 developed neurosyphilis. In conclusion, the enhanced treatment is more effective than standard treatment and results in a higher and faster cure rate. Moreover, it provides treponemicidal antibiotic levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, thereby preventing possible late complications.Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of global antimicrobial resistance Controlled trial quality: uncertain

196. Optimising the antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis: a protocol for a multicentre randomised clinical trial (APPAC II trial). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Optimising the antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis: a protocol for a multicentre randomised clinical trial (APPAC II trial). Based on epidemiological and clinical data acute appendicitis can present either as uncomplicated (70-80%) or complicated (20-30%) disease. Recent studies have shown that antibiotic therapy is both safe and cost-effective for a CT-scan confirmed uncomplicated acute appendicitis. However, based on the study protocols to ensure patient safety (...) , these randomised studies used mainly broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics requiring additional hospital resources and prolonged hospital stay. As we now know that antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis is feasible and safe, further studies evaluating optimisation of the antibiotic treatment regarding both antibiotic spectrum and shorter hospital stay are needed to evaluate antibiotics as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated acute appendicitis.APPAC II trial is a multicentre, open-label

2018 BMC Surgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

197. Antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of catheter removal after radical prostatectomy: A prospective randomized clinical trial. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of catheter removal after radical prostatectomy: A prospective randomized clinical trial. To evaluate the role of antibiotic prophylaxis with oral ciprofloxacin prior to urinary catheter removal after radical prostatectomy in preventing urinary tract infection (UTI).Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were prospectively enrolled and randomized to either the antibiotic prophylaxis group (2 doses of oral ciprofloxacin prior to urinary catheter removal (...) ) or the control group (no antibiotics given prior to urinary catheter removal). Neither patients nor study providers were blinded to the group. The primary objective was to assess for development of UTI. The secondary objective was to assess for development of Clostridium difficile (C diff) enterocolitis. Continuous variables were compared using a 2-sample t test. Categorical variables were compared using Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test.One hundred seventy-five patients were enrolled

2018 Urologic oncology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

198. Re: 'Is a randomized trial of a short course of aminoglycoside added to β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment in critically ill patients with sepsis justified?' Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Re: 'Is a randomized trial of a short course of aminoglycoside added to β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment in critically ill patients with sepsis justified?' Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. 29309932 2018 08 09 2018 12 02 1469-0691 24 6 2018 06 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Re: 'Is a randomized trial of a short course of aminoglycoside (...) added to β-lactam antibiotics for empirical treatment in critically ill patients with sepsis justified?' Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic considerations. 666-667 S1198-743X(17)30714-0 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.12.019 Heffernan A A School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia; Centre for Translational Anti-infective Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia. Lipman J J University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty

2018 Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

199. Antibacterial Efficacy of Mouthwash Prepared from Pomegranate, Grape Seed and Guava Extracts against Oral Streptococci: An in Vivo Study. (Abstract)

Antibacterial Efficacy of Mouthwash Prepared from Pomegranate, Grape Seed and Guava Extracts against Oral Streptococci: An in Vivo Study. Pomegranate, Grape seed and Guava extracts have much been reviewed in Ayurveda and has been proven to have antibacterial action Aim: The objective of the study is to investigate and compare the mouthwash prepared from pomegranate, grape seed and guava extracts on salivary streptococci levels at the end of 48 hr and 7 days, of twice a day usage.40 school going (...) aqueous extracts of the chosen herbal plants showed an acceptable antibacterial efficacy against oral streptococci.

2018 The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

200. Antibiotic treatment to prevent postextraction complications: a monocentric, randomized clinical trial. Preliminary outcomes. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment to prevent postextraction complications: a monocentric, randomized clinical trial. Preliminary outcomes. Tooth extraction is a very common procedure in oral surgery. Despite this, very little information is available in the literature as to the antibiotic management of the patient. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the antibiotic prophylaxis could be beneficial in preventing postextraction local complications and whether the use of a probiotic could help reduce (...) the antibiotic gastro-intestinal side effects.One hundred eleven patients meeting the inclusion criteria were initially included in this randomized clinical trial and randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a computer-generated randomization list. Patients allocated to the group 1 were given amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (2 g/day for 6 days), patients allocated to the group 2 received antibiotic + probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum+lactoferrin) and patients allocated to the group

2018 Minerva stomatologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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