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1. Tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication based on prior intake of macrolide antibiotics allows the use of triple therapy with optimal results in an area with high clarithromycin resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tailored Helicobacter pylori eradication based on prior intake of macrolide antibiotics allows the use of triple therapy with optimal results in an area with high clarithromycin resistance. the previous intake of macrolide antibiotics is associated with a failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with clarithromycin-containing regimens. However, the standard triple therapy achieves eradication rates of over 90% in patients without a previous use of macrolides in our health area

2019 Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2. Is A Combination of Antibiotics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs More Beneficial Than Antibiotic Monotherapy For The Treatment of Female Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. (Abstract)

Is A Combination of Antibiotics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs More Beneficial Than Antibiotic Monotherapy For The Treatment of Female Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.  Purpose: To compare the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) combination therapy to single-agent antibiotic therapy for the resolution of symptoms during two restricted activity days in patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC)Materials and Methods: We (...) (16.3%) had persistent symptoms. The follow-up numerical pain score was 0.39 ± 1.02 points. The pain score was dramatically decreased after medication. No difference was observed in the magnitude of the pain scale reduction between the two groups (P = 0.134). However, group II showed faster symptom resolution (P = 0.035) at the third administration (day 1.5).Conclusion: Combination therapy with NSAIDs and antibiotics for AUC patients can improve symptoms faster during two restricted activity days

2019 Urology journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

3. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. (Abstract)

Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in fecal flora before transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the clinical impact of targeted antibiotic prophylaxis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate ciprofloxacin resistance and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLs) in the population of patients with indication to undergo prostate biopsy. Our additional aim was to compare the targeted antibiotic prophylaxis and sepsis rates after transrectal ultrasound (...) guided prostate biopsy in patients who received routine ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and to evaluate the predictive factors of antibiotic resistance.Between September 2012 and January 2014, 300 patients were randomized to two groups. The first group (Group 1, n=156) received routine ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and the second group (Group 2, n=144) received a targeted prophylactic antibiotic regime that was adequate for rectal swab culture results. Rectal swab cultures were collected two weeks before

2019 Archivos Espanoles de Urologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4. To Compare the Effectiveness of Short-term Three Dose Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage during Decisive Period with Conventional Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Usage in Clean Elective Surgical Cases: An Indian Perspective. Full Text available with Trip Pro

To Compare the Effectiveness of Short-term Three Dose Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage during Decisive Period with Conventional Prolonged Postoperative Antibiotic Usage in Clean Elective Surgical Cases: An Indian Perspective. Surgical site infections are the most common postoperative complications and frequently cause morbidity and mortality. Different antibiotic regimens were evaluated as prophylaxis in wound infection following elective surgical procedures. Prophylactic antibiotics should (...) be given to cover the "decisive period" which is a period after incision to mobilization of host defenses thus preventing an infection from developing.The aim is to study the effectiveness of short-term antibiotic coverage during decisive period in the prevention of postoperative wound sepsis in clean surgical cases.The prospective randomized comparative study included 50 patients divided into two groups of 25 each. Group A (short-term ceftriaxone prophylaxis) patients received three doses of 1 g

2019 Nigerian journal of surgery : official publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

5. Prospective randomized clinical trial of uncomplicated right-sided colonic diverticulitis: antibiotics versus no antibiotics. (Abstract)

Prospective randomized clinical trial of uncomplicated right-sided colonic diverticulitis: antibiotics versus no antibiotics. Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of uncomplicated left-sided colonic diverticulitis. In Asian countries, however, right-sided colonic diverticulitis is more common than left-sided colonic diverticulitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the need for antibiotics in the treatment of uncomplicated right-sided colonic diverticulitis in an Asian (...) population.Patients were randomized to two management strategies: antibiotics and no antibiotics. At 4-6 weeks after discharge, the patients in both groups underwent computed tomography or were contacted by phone to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment. The primary end point was the treatment failure rate of the initial treatment, and secondary end points were the length of hospital stay and total admission costs.Patients were randomized to treatment with (61 patients) or without (64 patients) antibiotics

2019 International journal of colorectal disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6. Effects of primary care antimicrobial stewardship outreach on antibiotic use by general practice staff: pragmatic randomized controlled trial of the TARGET antibiotics workshop. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of primary care antimicrobial stewardship outreach on antibiotic use by general practice staff: pragmatic randomized controlled trial of the TARGET antibiotics workshop. To determine whether local trainer-led TARGET antibiotic interactive workshops improve antibiotic dispensing in general practice.Using a McNulty-Zelen-design randomized controlled trial within three regions of England, 152 general practices were stratified by clinical commissioning group, antibiotic dispensing rate (...) %, P = 0.06). The Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) analysis, which estimates impact in those that comply with assigned intervention, indicated 6.1% (95% CI 0.2%-11.7%, P = 0.04) lower total antibiotic dispensing in intervention practices and 11% (95% CI 1.6%-19.5%, P = 0.02) lower trimethoprim dispensing.This study within usual service provision found that TARGET antibiotic workshops can help improve antibiotic use, and therefore should be considered as part of any national antimicrobial

2018 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Controlled trial quality: predicted high

7. Evaluation of the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the preventive efficacy of three dentin tubule occlusion methods against discoloration caused by triple-antibiotic paste (TAP). Sixty extracted human incisors were sectioned, and the access was opened. The specimens were randomly allocated to the following four groups (n = 15): bonding application (BD), teethmate

2018 Odontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8. [Generation of Antibiotic Tolerant Bacterial Persisters in Immunocompromized Patients with Hematologic and Malignant Diseases: A New Problem of Health-Care Associated Infections]. (Abstract)

[Generation of Antibiotic Tolerant Bacterial Persisters in Immunocompromized Patients with Hematologic and Malignant Diseases: A New Problem of Health-Care Associated Infections]. Antibiotic tolerance (AT) represents one of the causes of the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance that allows escape of non-replicating metabolically inert microorganisms (persisters) from any antibiotics attack because molecular targets of antibiotics are lacking thereby creating the potential for chronic (...) infections.Determine the heterogeneity of the strains of opportunistic pathogens E. coli and P. aeruginosa isolates from children with hematologic malignancies containing bacterial persisters that cause the AT phenomenon.Children with hematological malignancies were divided into 2 groups according to the intensity of antibiotic treatment of infectious complications. Ciprofloxacin-induced persisters were quantitatively determined in the biological materials obtained from sick children.Within the clinical isolates

2018 Vestnik Rossiiskoi akademii meditsinskikh nauk Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9. L-Methionine associated with Hibiscus sabdariffa and Boswellia serrata extracts are not inferior to antibiotic treatment for symptoms relief in patients affected by recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections: Focus on antibiotic-sparing approach. Full Text available with Trip Pro

L-Methionine associated with Hibiscus sabdariffa and Boswellia serrata extracts are not inferior to antibiotic treatment for symptoms relief in patients affected by recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infections: Focus on antibiotic-sparing approach. To evaluate the efficacy of a phytotherapic combination of L-Methionine associated with Hibiscus sabdariffa and Boswellia serrata for treatment of acute episodes of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in women affected by recurrent (...) UTIs.In this randomized phase III clinical trial, adult females with uncomplicated UTI were enrolled into one of the following treatment groups: Group A: phytotherapic combination 1 tablet in the morning and 1 tablet in the evening for 7 days; Group B: Short term antibiotic treatment according to international guidelines recommendations. At baseline, all patients were evaluated by a urologist and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires and mid-stream urine culture. Same clinical and laboratory

2018 Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

10. Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy Reduces Antibiotic Use for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in a United States Medical Center: Results of a Clinical Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy Reduces Antibiotic Use for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in a United States Medical Center: Results of a Clinical Trial. European trials using procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic therapy for patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have demonstrated significant reductions in antibiotic use without increasing adverse outcomes. Few studies have examined PCT for LRTIs in the United States.In this study, we evaluated whether a PCT (...) algorithm would reduce antibiotic exposure in patients with LRTI in a US hospital. We conducted a controlled pre-post trial comparing an intervention group of PCT-guided antibiotic therapy to a control group of usual care. Consecutive patients admitted to medicine services and receiving antibiotics for LRTI were enrolled in the intervention. Providers were encouraged to discontinue antibiotics according to a PCT algorithm. Control patients were similar patients admitted before the intervention.The

2018 Open forum infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

11. Is the routine practice of antibiotic prescription and microbial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing justified in primary maxillofacial space infection patients? A prospective, randomized clinical study. (Abstract)

Is the routine practice of antibiotic prescription and microbial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing justified in primary maxillofacial space infection patients? A prospective, randomized clinical study. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, comparative clinical study was to compare treatment outcome of removal of foci and incision and drainage, with or without oral antibiotic therapy, in the management of single primary maxillofacial space infection with a known focus.A total (...) of 40 patients with single primary maxillofacial space infection with a known infectious focus were divided into two groups, one treated with incision and drainage only, and the other with incision and drainage along with oral antibiotics. The focus of infection was addressed in both groups. Parameters evaluated included pain score, maximum mouth opening, swelling, purulent discharge and return to normal life, which were assessed on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7. The patients were followed up until

2018 Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

12. Is very short-course antibiotic therapy possible in postoperative intra-abdominal infections? Discussion on "Short-course antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients treated for postoperative intra-abdominal infection: the DURAPOP randomised clinical t (Abstract)

Is very short-course antibiotic therapy possible in postoperative intra-abdominal infections? Discussion on "Short-course antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients treated for postoperative intra-abdominal infection: the DURAPOP randomised clinical t 29654347 2018 06 21 2019 03 08 1432-1238 44 5 2018 05 Intensive care medicine Intensive Care Med Is very short-course antibiotic therapy possible in postoperative intra-abdominal infections? Discussion on "Short-course antibiotic therapy

2018 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

13. Colonoscopy in automated peritoneal dialysis patients: value of prophylactic antibiotics: a prospective study on a single antibiotic. (Abstract)

Colonoscopy in automated peritoneal dialysis patients: value of prophylactic antibiotics: a prospective study on a single antibiotic. To evaluate the need for prophylactic antibiotics in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients undergoing flexible colonoscopy.A total of 93 patients on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study. Patients were randomized into 2 age- and sex-matched groups; group A (46 patients (...) ) with intraperitoneal (IP) ceftazidime prior to colonoscopy and group B (47 patients) without prophylactic antibiotics. The relations between peritonitis and different parameters were analyzed.Of all colonoscopies, 60.2% showed normal findings, 17.2% with colonic polyps at different sites, 12.9% with angiodysplastic-like lesions, 5.4% with colonic ulcer(s), 3.2% with diverticulae without diverticulitis and 1.1% had transverse colon stricture. Post-colonoscopy peritonitis was documented in 3 (6.5%) and 4 (8.5

2018 The International journal of artificial organs Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. Multicentre, controlled, randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of ambulatory treatment of mild acute diverticulitis without antibiotics with the standard treatment with antibiotics. (Abstract)

Multicentre, controlled, randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of ambulatory treatment of mild acute diverticulitis without antibiotics with the standard treatment with antibiotics. Acute diverticulitis (AD) is a highly prevalent disease in Spain. Its chronic-recurrent appearance and high rate of relapse mean that it has a major epidemiological and economic impact on our health system. In spite of this, it has not been studied in any great depth. Reassessing its (...) etiopathology, recent studies have observed that it is an inflammatory disease-not, as classic theories had postulated, an infectious one. In the light of these findings, the suitability of antibiotics for its treatment has been reconsidered. At present, however, the evidence for incorporating these findings into clinical practice guidelines remains insufficient.This study was designed to analyse the safety and efficacy of a non-antibiotic treatment for mild AD. Patients with mild AD (grade 0

2018 International journal of colorectal disease Controlled trial quality: uncertain

15. The effects of antibiotic cycling and mixing on antibiotic resistance in intensive care units: a cluster-randomised crossover trial. (Abstract)

The effects of antibiotic cycling and mixing on antibiotic resistance in intensive care units: a cluster-randomised crossover trial. Whether antibiotic rotation strategies reduce prevalence of antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) has not been accurately established. We aimed to assess whether cycling of antibiotics compared with a mixing strategy (changing antibiotic to an alternative class for each consecutive patient) would reduce the prevalence (...) of antibiotic-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria in European intensive care units (ICUs).In a cluster-randomised crossover study, we randomly assigned ICUs to use one of three antibiotic groups (third-generation or fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenems) as preferred empirical treatment during 6-week periods (cycling) or to change preference after every consecutively treated patient (mixing). Computer-based randomisation of intervention and rotated antibiotic sequence

2018 Lancet infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Non-Antibiotic Herbal Therapy (BNO 1045) versus Antibiotic Therapy (Fosfomycin Trometamol) for the Treatment of Acute Lower Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Multicentre, Non-Inferiority Phase III Full Text available with Trip Pro

Non-Antibiotic Herbal Therapy (BNO 1045) versus Antibiotic Therapy (Fosfomycin Trometamol) for the Treatment of Acute Lower Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women: A Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Multicentre, Non-Inferiority Phase III This randomized, controlled, Phase III non-inferiority clinical trial aimed to determine whether herbal therapy with Canephron® N (BNO 1045) is non-inferior to fosfomycin trometamol (FT) in treating acute lower uncomplicated urinary tract (...) infections (uUTIs).Women aged 18-70 years with typical symptoms of newly diagnosed acute lower uUTIs were randomized to BNO 1045 (n = 325) or FT (n = 334), with corresponding matched placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who received additional antibiotics (ABs) to treat uUTIs between Days 1 and 38 ±3.Between Days 1 and 38, 238 (83.5%) patients in the BNO 1045 group and 272 (89.8%) patients in the FT group received no additional ABs. At a 15% non-inferiority margin, BNO 1045

2018 Urologia internationalis Controlled trial quality: predicted high

17. Study protocol for a multicentre, cluster randomised, superiority trial evaluating the impact of computerised decision support, audit and feedback on antibiotic use: the COMPuterized Antibiotic Stewardship Study (COMPASS). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Study protocol for a multicentre, cluster randomised, superiority trial evaluating the impact of computerised decision support, audit and feedback on antibiotic use: the COMPuterized Antibiotic Stewardship Study (COMPASS). Inappropriate use of antimicrobials in hospitals contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions aim to improve antimicrobial prescribing, but they are often resource and personnel intensive. Computerised decision supportsystems (CDSSs (...) ) seem a promising tool to improve antimicrobial prescribing but have been insufficiently studied in clinical trials.The COMPuterized Antibiotic Stewardship Study trial, is a publicly funded, open-label, cluster randomised, controlled superiority trial which aims to determine whether a multimodal CDSS intervention integrated in the electronic health record (EHR) reduces overall antibiotic exposure in adult patients hospitalised in wards of two secondary and one tertiary care centre in Switzerland

2018 BMJ open Controlled trial quality: predicted high

18. Impact of selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results on the appropriateness of antibiotics chosen by French general practitioners in urinary tract infections: a randomised controlled case-vignette study. (Abstract)

%, depending on the clinical vignette. Most (106/131, 81.0%) participants favoured the routine use of selective reporting of AST results. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results seems to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in primary care, and may be considered a key element of antimicrobial stewardship programmes.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. (...) Impact of selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results on the appropriateness of antibiotics chosen by French general practitioners in urinary tract infections: a randomised controlled case-vignette study. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general

2018 International journal of antimicrobial agents Controlled trial quality: uncertain

19. Effects of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatrics. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in pediatrics. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program based on a Clinical Pathway (CP) to improve appropriateness in perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP).This pre-post quasi-experimental study was conducted in a 12 month period (six months before and six months after CP implementation), in a tertiary Pediatric Surgical Centre. All patients from 1 (...)  month to 15 years of age receiving one or more surgical procedures were eligible for inclusion. PAP was defined appropriate according to clinical practice guidelines.Seven hundred sixty-six children were included in the study, 394 in pre-intervention and 372 in post-intervention. After CP implementation, there was an increase in appropriate PAP administration, as well as in the selection of the appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis, both for monotherapy (p = 0.02) and combination therapy (p = 0.004

2019 Antimicrobial resistance and infection control Controlled trial quality: uncertain

20. The Effect of Emphasizing Patient, Societal, and Institutional Harms of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing on Physician Support of Financial Penalties: A Randomized Trial. (Abstract)

The Effect of Emphasizing Patient, Societal, and Institutional Harms of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing on Physician Support of Financial Penalties: A Randomized Trial. 28631001 2018 01 08 2018 01 08 1539-3704 167 3 2017 08 01 Annals of internal medicine Ann. Intern. Med. The Effect of Emphasizing Patient, Societal, and Institutional Harms of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescribing on Physician Support of Financial Penalties: A Randomized Trial. 215-216 10.7326/L17-0102 Liao Joshua M JM From

2018 Annals of Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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