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161. Guidelines For Professional Ultrasound Practice

AND SCROTUM 76 2.9.1 Ultrasound examination of the kidneys 76 2.9.2 Ultrasound examination of the testes and scrotum 79 2.10 ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION OF THE ADULT HEAD AND NECK 82 2.11 PAEDIATRIC ULTRASOUND EXAMINATIONS 86 2.11.1 Paediatric liver and biliary system 86 2.11.2 Paediatric Urinary system 90 2.11.3 Paediatric gastro-intestinal tract 91 2.11.4 Neonatal hip 92 2.11.5 Neonatal intracranial ultrasound 93 2.12 MUSCULOSKELETAL ULTRASOUND EXAMINATIONS 95 SCoR/BMUS Guidelines for Professional Ultrasound

2019 British Medical Ultrasound Society

162. Management of Male Breast Cancer

for a particular use or purpose. ASCO assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of this information, or for any errors or omissions. Guideline and Conflicts of Interest The Expert Panel was assembled in accordance with ASCO’s Conflict of Interest Policy Implementation for Clinical Practice Guidelines (“Policy,” found at ). All members of the Expert Panel completed ASCO’s disclosure form, which requires disclosure of financial and other

2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

163. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Clinical Practice Guideline on the Management of Bile Acid Diarrhea

). Three subtypes of bile acid diarrhea (BAD) have been described: type 1, patients with terminal ileal disease (e.g., Crohn’s disease, resection) or radiation injury resulting in im- paired reabsorption of bile acids; type 2, idiopathic or primary; and type 3, other conditions (e.g., celiac disease, cholecystec- tomy) that alter intestinal motility or bile acid absorption (3,5). BAD has been reported in approximately 25% to 35% of patients with chronic diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) (6

2020 Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

164. The Prevention, Assessment and Management of in-Hospital Newborn Falls and Drops

undergo appropriate surveillance. 3. Parents should be provided with information to prevent baby falls. 4. Following an in-hospital fall all babies should a. Be monitored for apparent/evolving signs of intracranial injury that warrant imaging by CT b. Undergo surveillance using enhanced observations for at least 12 hours in an appropriate care location. 5. Appropriate escalation pathways should be in place to ensure senior clinicians are involved in management decisions. 6. Trusts should undertake (...) with possible traumatic brain injury must be quick and safe, and consists of key steps: ? Assessment of airway breathing and circulation. ? Evaluation of level of consciousness, and pupillary size and reaction to light ? Assessment of local traumatic injuries ? Full neurological examination and enhanced observations All infants who are found following a drop should be moved carefully to a surface with good lighting and heat source e.g resuscitaire for a full assessment. i. “Crash” call for an urgent

2020 British Association of Perinatal Medicine

165. Pharmacological Agents for Procedural Sedation and Analgesia

of nitrous oxide and oxygen (to prevent hypoxaemia) that is inhaled. It has a rapid onset (30secs) and short duration of action (1 min). Thought to act by binding to opiate receptors in the CNS. Uses: Sedation, anxiolysis and minor analgesic properties. Administration: Inhaled but requires patient to be able to hold the inhaler, does not require venous access. Side effects: Requires a well ventilated room to prevent exposure of clinician, can cause vomiting, contraindicated in head injury, pneumothorax (...) , bowel obstruction, sinus disease. Propofol: Properties: Phenol derivative, highly lipophilic, crosses blood brain barrier rapidly. Action thought to be through positive modulation of GABA inhibitory neurotransmission. Used widely for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. Uses: Sedation and amnesia. Administration: Much smaller doses are required for sedation than for general anaesthesia, with initial doses as low as 10 mg in the elderly or those with significant co-morbidities although

2019 Royal College of Emergency Medicine

166. Drug Misuse and the Emergency Department

has focussed on drug use in the older (>60yrs) population group (6). Drug Misuse and the Emergency Department, May 2019 5 The harms associated with illicit drug use include; withdrawal, bloodborne virus infections, accidental overdose, interactions with prescribed drugs as well as respiratory, hepatic, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Substance abuse increases the risk of other behaviours e.g. self-harm, self-neglect, abuse or exploitation by others, accidental injury. High risk groups include (...) , Black Mamba, Spice and Exodus Damnation. They bear no relation to the cannabis plant except that the chemicals which are blended into the base plant matter act on the brain in a similar way to cannabis. Stimulant-type drugs – these drugs mimic substances such as amphetamine, cocaine and ecstasy and include BZP, mephedrone, MPDV, NRG-1, Benzo Fury, MDAI, ethylphenidate. ‘Dow ner ’/ t r a nquil is er-type drugs – these drugs mimic tranquiliser or anti-anxiety drugs, in particular from

2019 Royal College of Emergency Medicine

167. Traumatic Cardiac Arrest in Adults

and the following indications maybe useful; massive trauma incompatible with survival (e.g. decapitation, hemicorpectomy, exposed brain matter); no signs of life in the preceding 15 minutes (reactive pupils, spontaneous movement, agonal respiratory efforts, organized electrocardiographic activity); or signs of prolonged cardiac arrest (dependent lividity, rigor mortis). Favourable prognostic signs Relative favourable prognostic signs in TCA may include a penetrating mechanism of injury, particularly thoracic

2019 Royal College of Emergency Medicine

168. Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) reporting standards for type B aortic dissections (Full text)

incidentally on cross-sectional imaging in asymptomatic patients. Although PAUs were initially reported in association with IMH and rupture, PAU as a cause of aortic dissection was first described in 1995. x 44 Benitez, R.M., Gurbel, P.A., Chong, H., and Rajasingh, M.C. Penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aortic arch resulting in extensive and fatal dissection. Am Heart J . 1995 ; 129 : 821–823 | | | Trauma Several grading systems have classified blunt traumatic aortic injury into categories (...) by presence of intimal tear, IMH, pseudoaneurysm, or free rupture. x 45 Azizzadeh, A., Keyhani, K., Miller, C.C. 3rd, Coogan, S.M., Safi, H.J., and Estrera, A.L. Blunt traumatic aortic injury: initial experience with endovascular repair. J Vasc Surg . 2009 ; 49 : 1403–1408 | | | | | , x 46 Rabin, J., DuBose, J., Sliker, C.W., O'Connor, J.V., Scalea, T.M., and Griffith, B.P. Parameters for successful nonoperative management of traumatic aortic injury. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg . 2014 ; 147 : 143–149

2020 Society for Vascular Surgery PubMed abstract

169. Covid-19: ASRM Recommendations For Reducing The Risk Of Viral Transmission During Fertility Treatment With The Use Of Autologous Gametes

,sharedneedles, needle stick injuries). HCV also has been detected in saliva, urine, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk, and sexual and vertical transmission are probable secondary modes of transmission (39). HCVinfectsover 1%of theworld's population. Based on prenatal testing, the seroprevalence of HCV in the United States is between 2.3% and 4.5%. Groups at highest risk are intravenousdrugusers,hemophiliacs,homosexualmen,sex- ual partners of HCV-infected individuals, and sex workers (40). HCV (...) sarcoma, and CMV has been associated with several malignancies, including prostate carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, and ade- nocarcinoma, although causal relationships have not been established. HHV-6 infection can cause roseola infantum, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. HSV-1 and 2 can cause painful ulcerative diseasesincluding gingivostomatitis, herpes labia- lis,keratoconjunctivitis,genitalandneonatalherpes,andalso encephalitis and meningitis. HSV-2 and CMV infections can produce serious brain damage

2020 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

170. Elderly Adults with Isolated Hip Fractures - Orthogeriatric Care versus Standard Care

, and suffer decreased strength and altered balance, increasing the risk for additional falls. [11] Furthermore, one third of hip fracture patients have reduced cognitive function. [12] Concussion or traumatic brain injury may complicate recovery for the geriatric fragility fall patient by reducing functional independence, decreasing activities of daily living (ADLs), and by creating deficits in cognition, behavior, and motor skills. [11] Statement of the Problem Ideal treatment of the geriatric trauma (...) trauma patients in 127 hospitals, Maxwell and colleagues found that 56% had a major operative procedure. Thirty-six percent of these patients had femoral neck fractures , the most common injury. [10] Mortality associated with hip fractures is 5% to 10% in the first 30 postoperative days and 12% to 37% within the first year after surgery. Hip fracture patients have five- to eight-fold increased mortality risk in the 3 months following their trauma, have functional and self- care limitations

2020 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

171. Clinical Performance Measures for Neurocritical Care

hemorrhage), two involved neuromus- cular diseases (Guillain–Barre Syndrome and myasthenia gravis), three were related to neuroinfectious diseases, two concerned status epilepticus, one with traumatic brain injury, one with global cerebral ischemia after car- diac arrest, and two with processes of neurocritical care delivery relevant to more than one disease condition. Of the 13 topics described in Table 1, PMs were not devel- oped for five diseases (coma, intracranial hypertension, non-traumatic spinal (...) intracranial hypertension/16 Table 3 (continued) Medline/PubMed/cochrane CINAHL EMBASE Cerebral herniation OR brain herniation OR cerebral edema Cerebral herniation” Brain herniation Cerebral herniation OR brain herniation OR cerebral edema Meningitis OR ventriculitis Meningitis + ”) OR “Meningitis ventriculitis MeningitisVentriculitis.mp. or exp brain ventricu- litis/ Encephalitis MH “Encephalitis + ” OR “Encephalitis” Encephalitis Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy OR anoxic brain injury MH “Hypoxia

2020 Neurocritical Care Society

172. Neurosonography in Neonates and Infants

hemorrhage in preterm neonates: comparison with brain MRI and susceptibility-weighted imaging. J Neuroradiol 2013; 40:81–88. 7. Elkhunovich M, Sirody J, McCormick T, Goodarzian F, Claudius I. The utility of cranial ultrasound for detection of intracranial hemor- rhageininfants. Pediatr Emerg Care2018;34:96–101. 8. Kersbergen KJ, Groenendaal F, Benders MJ, de Vries LS. Neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis: neuroimaging and long-term follow-up. J Child Neurol 2011; 26:1111–1120. 9. Vizcaino-Diaz C (...) Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine | J Ultrasound Med 2020; 9999:1–5 | 0278-4297 | www.aium.org? Suspected hypoxic ischemic injury (hypoxic ische- mic encephalopathy). 2–5,11–15 ? Patients on hypothermia, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and other support machines. 16 ? Congenital malformations. 2–5 ? Signsor symptomsof a central nervous system disorder (eg, seizures, facial malformations, macrocephaly, microcephaly, and intrauterine growth restriction). 2–5,17 ? Congenital or acquired brain

2020 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

173. COVID-19 in Patients with Seizures and Epilepsy: Interpretation of Relevant Knowledge of Presenting Signs and Symptoms (Full text)

in 5.6% and 5.1% of patients, respectively, which showed no difference in occurrence between the severe and non-severe groups. Muscle injury was reported in 10.7%. Taken together, these two studies show initial neurological involvement, especially in mild COVID-19 cases, is rare, but that neurological involvement can occur in more severe cases later in the disease course. Epilepsy and seizures are an uncommon complication of COVID-19. Expert consensus of COVID-19 care for neurology In an expert (...) appropriately if testing results for SARS-CoV-2 are ambiguous or unavailable, and that some patients had leukopenia before onset of symptoms. Potential concerns for SARS-CoV-2 CNS infection Despite findings from early studies, there is great heterogeneity of neurological presentation for individual patients with viral illnesses, so a minority of COVID-19 patients may present with neurological signs and symptoms. SARS‐CoV-2 has been reported in the brains from both patients and experimental animals, 4;6

2020 American Epilepsy Society PubMed abstract

175. Telecommunicator Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association (Full text)

; conversely, not meeting this goal represents a preventable harm in that potential survivors of OHCA are lost. Public Health Implications of T-CPR Early lay rescuer CPR is associated, on average, with an ≈2-fold increase in the chances of survival after OHCA. Collectively, lay rescuer CPR can increase heart resuscitation and brain recovery and thus is associated with positive functional survival, better long-term prognosis, and favorable cost-effectiveness. Yet, fewer than half of patients who have (...) to be in cardiac arrest will ultimately receive CPR. Although rib fractures and sternal fractures have been observed in as many as 30% and 15%, respectively, of individuals experiencing cardiac arrest after prolonged CPR according to autopsy, no such adverse events were reported in individuals not experiencing cardiac arrest who received lay rescuer CPR. , Life-threatening injuries potentially resulting from chest compressions are extremely rare and are present in <0.5% of OHCAs. Given the risk

2020 American Heart Association PubMed abstract

176. The Use of Hysteroscopy for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Intrauterine Pathology

but did not reduce rates of uterine perforation during operative hysteroscopy . Major bleeding, suspicion of visceral injury, or perforation by an electrosurgical electrode may warrant immediate surgical intervention. Infection Antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for routine hysteroscopic procedures. Hysteroscopy is contraindicated during an active pelvic infection and in women with prodromal or active herpes infection. Infectious complications related to hysteroscopic procedures are uncommon (...) postoperative infection after diagnostic hysteroscopy or operative hysteroscopy . Electrosurgical Injury Serious injury by electrosurgical electrodes can occur during operative hysteroscopic procedures, typically in the setting of uterine perforation. Exploratory surgery may be indicated if clinically significant bleeding arises or if there is suspicion of thermal damage to visceral structures. Lower genital tract structures (eg, vagina or perineum) also may be at risk for thermal injury. Potential risk

2020 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

177. Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis

.) or as methodologists (G.G.) were reimbursed by the AAN for expenses related to travel to subcommittee meetings where drafts of manuscripts were reviewed. DISCLOSURE G. Gronseth serves as an associate editor for Neurology and as an editorial advisory board member of Brain & Life; he received compensation from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) for work as its chief evidence-based medicine methodologist. R. Barohn served as a consultant for Momenta Pharmaceuticals and Nufactor and receives research support from (...) , regarding the information. The AAN specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular use or purpose. The AAN assumes no responsibility for any injury or damage to persons or property arising out of or related to any use of this information or for any errors or omissions. CONFLICT OF INTEREST The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is committed to producing independent, critical, and trustworthy clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and evidence-based documents

2020 American Academy of Neurology

178. Appropriate Imaging for Common Situations in Primary and Emergency Care

clinical decision rules balance the benefit of identifying a treatable brain injury with the risks associated with radiation exposure. When in doubt, consult with the relevant specialist locally or through the RACE Line. Recommendation: Do not request CT head scans in patients who have suffered minor head injuries unless positive for a validated head injury clinical decision rule such as: Adults age 16+: Canadian CT Head Rule (below) Children: PECARN Rule In situations where CT is not readily available (...) ONE of the following findings: High risk (for neurological intervention) GCS score <15 at 2h after injury Suspected open or depressed skull fracture Any sign of basal skull fracture (haemotympanum, ‘raccoon’ eyes, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea/rhinorrhoea, Battle’s sign) Vomiting ≥2 episodes Age ≥65 years Medium risk (for brain injury on CT) Amnesia > 30 minutes preceding impact Dangerous mechanism of injury (e.g. pedestrian struck by motor vehicle, occupant ejected from motor vehicle, fall from

2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

179. Covid-19: Neurocritical Care

. Management of neurocritical care patients during the COVID-19 pandemic We should be aware that patients with common neurological diseases requiring ICU admission (e.g. traumatic brain injury, ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, status epilepticus, neuro-immunological diseases and many others) have to be managed as usual, independent of COVID-19 infection status. At present, it is not known how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts on outcome of Neurocritical Care patients through direct neuro-invasive effects (...) Scientific Corner December 19, 2019 COVID-19 May 13, 2020 COVID-19 May 5, 2020 COVID-19 May 5, 2020 Educational May 5, 2020 E-Brain May 1, 2020 E-Brain February 28, 2020 E-Brain April 1, 2019 E-Brain November 1, 2018 Grand Rounds October 2, 2017 Grand Rounds July 1, 2016 Grand Rounds July 1, 2016 Grand Rounds February 1, 2016 Continuing medical education June 3, 2019 Continuing medical education February 21, 2019 Continuing medical education October 1, 2018 Continuing medical education July 24, 2018

2020 European Academy of Neurology

180. Covid-19: Coma and Chronic Disorders of Consciousness

Covid-19: Coma and Chronic Disorders of Consciousness Neurorehabilitation of patients with severe brain injury during the Covid-19 epidemic - eanpages COVID-19 May 13, 2020 COVID-19 May 13, 2020 COVID-19 May 6, 2020 COVID-19 May 6, 2020 COVID-19 May 13, 2020 COVID-19 May 13, 2020 COVID-19 May 6, 2020 COVID-19 May 6, 2020 Executive Page May 1, 2020 Executive Page April 1, 2020 Executive Page March 1, 2020 Executive Page February 1, 2020 Country of the Month May 1, 2020 Country of the Month April (...) Patients societies reports January 9, 2020 Patients societies reports January 3, 2020 Patients societies reports January 2, 2020 Surveys April 10, 2020 Surveys October 7, 2019 Forum April 1, 2016 Forum March 1, 2016 Forum March 1, 2016 Forum February 1, 2016 Uncategorized May 2, 2020 Uncategorized May 1, 2020 Uncategorized May 1, 2020 Uncategorized April 29, 2020 Neurorehabilitation of patients with severe brain injury during the Covid-19 epidemic April 9, 2020 EAN Scientific Panel Coma and Chronic

2020 European Academy of Neurology

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