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81. Mental health of adults in contact with the criminal justice system

, primarily of self-harm. The ACCT process is necessarily prescriptive and it is vital that all stages are followed in the timescales prescribed. Mental health of adults in contact with the criminal justice system (NG66) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 27 of 39Acquired cognitiv Acquired cognitive impairment e impairment Any cognitive impairment that develops after birth, including traumatic brain injury (...) health assessment. No: record no action needed. Mental health of adults in contact with the criminal justice system (NG66) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 8 of 39Ph Physical injuries ysical injuries 3. Has the person received any physical injuries over the past few days, and if so: what were they how were they treated? Yes: assess severity of injury, any treatment received and record any significant

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

82. Cerebral palsy in under 25s: assessment and management

of functional impairment than other causes. 1.2.5 Recognise that the clinical syndrome of neonatal encephalopathy can result from various pathological events, such as a hypoxic–ischaemic brain injury or sepsis, and if there has been more than 1 such event they may interact to damage the developing brain. 1.2.6 When assessing the likely cause of cerebral palsy, recognise that neonatal encephalopathy has been reported at the following approximate prevalences in Cerebral palsy in under 25s: assessment (...) of the initial encephalopathy the dyskinetic motor subtype is more common than other subtypes. 1.2.8 Recognise that for cerebral palsy acquired after the neonatal period, the following causes and approximate prevalences have been reported: meningitis: 20% other infections: 30% head injury: 12%. 1.2.9 When assessing the likely cause of cerebral palsy, recognise that independent risk factors: can have a cumulative impact, adversely affecting the developing brain and resulting in cerebral palsy may have

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

83. The Combined Use of Ultrasound and Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging for a Comprehensive Fetal Neurological Assessment in Fetal Congenital Cardiac Defects

injury following surgery in certain patients. Socio‐economic and parental factors will also influence later intellectual development. , Increasingly, however, preoperative and prenatal brain dysgenesis, immaturity and white matter injury are being recognised in infants with CHDs. There is substantial clinical evidence of neurological developmental deficits prior to surgery in these infants, with this association more established in some cardiac defects, such as HLH. , There is a higher prevalence (...) of microcephaly in infants with HLH and the effect of surgery on further neurological deficit in this group is unclear. In addition to global delay, localised neurological deficits have been observed in all domains. Evidence from the neuroimaging literature demonstrates more than half of newborns with CHD (in high‐risk groups of HLH and TGA) have evidence of white matter brain injury, which are varyingly termed ischaemic lesions, white matter injury, focal stroke and periventricular leukomalacia

2019 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

84. Haemodialysis

kidney injury) finally with date and language restrictions ("1990/01/01"[dp]: "3000"[dp] AND english[lang]). Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, and The Cochrane Library, and supplemented with papers handpicked from the reference lists of review papers. The strengths of the recommendations and the level of supporting evidence are coded as previously using the Modified GRADE system. There are a few changes in scope, for example dialysis water treatment is now covered in another

2019 Renal Association

85. Diagnosis and Management of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

fractures and joint replacements, and spinal cord injury are strong provoking factors for VTE. , Cancer is a well-recognized predisposing factor for VTE. The risk of VTE varies with different types of cancer; , pancreatic cancer, haematological malignancies, lung cancer, gastric cancer, and brain cancer carry the highest risk. , Moreover, cancer is a strong risk factor for all-cause mortality following an episode of VTE. Oestrogen-containing oral contraceptive agents are associated with an elevated VTE (...) Assessment of pulmonary embolism severity and the risk of early death 18 5.1 Clinical parameters of pulmonary embolism severity 18 5.2 Imaging of right ventricular size and function 18 5.2.1 Echocardiography 18 5.2.2 Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography 19 5.3 Laboratory biomarkers 19 5.3.1 Markers of myocardial injury 19 5.3.2 Markers of right ventricular dysfunction 19 5.3.3 Other laboratory biomarkers 19 5.4 Combined parameters and scores for assessment of pulmonary embolism severity 20 5.5

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2019 European Society of Cardiology

86. Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer - A review of the evidence

Australia to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent to the Publications and Copyright contact officer, Cancer Australia, Locked Bag 3, Strawberry Hills, NSW 2012. Disclaimer Cancer Australia does not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on the information. Cancer Australia develops material based on the best available evidence, however it cannot guarantee and assumes no legal liability or responsibility

2019 Cancer Australia

87. Position Statement – Testing for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women: Technical Report

(electronic or otherwise) without first being given the specific written permission from Cancer Australia to do so. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights are to be sent to the Publications and Copyright contact officer, Cancer Australia, Locked Bag 3, Strawberry Hills, NSW 2012. Disclaimer Cancer Australia does not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on the information. Cancer Australia develops material based on the best available

2019 Cancer Australia

88. Metastatic Breast Cancer Summary

resources, visit canceraustralia.gov.au/statement canceraustralia.gov.au/statementAPPROPRIATE to consider single fraction radiotherapy initially for uncomplicated painful bone metastases in patients with metastatic breast cancer, rather than routinely using radiotherapy with extended fractionation schemes (>10 fractions). 8 NOT APPROPRIATE to use whole brain radiotherapy for metastatic breast cancer patients with brain metastases, without considering initial surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery. 10 7 (...) and information based on the best available evidence. However, Cancer Australia cannot guarantee and does not warrant or represent that the information is accurate, current or complete. Cancer Australia assumes no legal liability or responsibility for any injury, loss, damage, cost or expense incurred by use of, reliance on, or interpretation of the information. © Cancer Australia 2019 BCMS 10/19

2019 Cancer Australia

89. Diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults

3.5 Hand-held video 11 3.6 Brain imaging 11 3.7 Electrocardiography 11 3.8 Genetic testing 12 4 Treatment 13 4.1 When to start antiepileptic treatment 13 4.2 Antiepileptic drug monotherapy 13 4.3 Management of drug-resistant epilepsy 14 4.4 Antiepileptic drug blood levels 16 4.5 Management of provoked seizures 17 4.6 Antiepileptic drug adverse effects 17 4.7 Antiepileptic drug withdrawal 19 4.8 Complementary therapy 20 4.9 Surgical referral 23 4.10 Management of prolonged seizures including status (...) be a significant part of their clinical workload (equivalent to at least one session a week). 9 3.2 DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION In 2014 the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) task force for the definition of epilepsy proposed that epilepsy be considered a disease of the brain defined by any of the following conditions: 10 y at least two unprovoked (or reflex) seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart y one unprovoked (or reflex) seizure and a probability of further seizures similar to the general

2018 SIGN

90. Home mechanical ventilation for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A CTS Clinical Practice Guideline

remains unclear. There has been concern that compensatory overuse of surviving muscle groups may worsen neural dysfunction and potentially accel- erate the loss of motor units. 93 In contrast, other studies have suggested that exercise may be safe and effective in slowing the decline in muscle strength. 94–96 Inspiratory muscle training has been investigated in other neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury 97 and Duchenne muscu- lar dystrophy, 98,99 but the results of these studies may

2019 Canadian Thoracic Society

91. Canadian Urological Association guideline for the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

The International Continence Society (ICS) defines “neurogenic lower urinary tract dys - function” (NLUTD) as “lower urinary tract dysfunction due to disturbance of the neurological control mechanism.” This broad definition is used to describe a multitude of conditions of varying severity. Common causes of NLUTD include: spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), and myelomeningocele (MMC). Other causes of NLUTD include: Parkinson’s disease, cere- brovascular accidents, traumatic brain injury, brain (...) , The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 6 Division of Urology, CIUSSS-Capitale Nationale Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 7 University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada *Guideline co-chairs Cite as: Can Urol Assoc J 2019;13(6):E157-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.5912 Published online February 7, 2019 Introduction Definitions/purpose The term “neurogenic bladder” describes lower urinary tract dysfunction that has occurred likely as a result of a neu- rological injury or disease. 1

2019 Canadian Urological Association

92. End of life care for infants, children and young people with life-limiting conditions: planning and management

physical injury. 1.3.36 If a child or young person becomes agitated as they are approaching the end of life, look for causes and factors that may be contributing to this, including: medical disorders and conditions such as pain, hypoxia, anaemia, dehydration, urinary retention or constipation psychological factors such as fear, anxiety or depression adverse effects from medication. 1.3.37 For children and young people with a neurological disability who are approaching the end of life, be aware (...) disturbances drug reactions sleep deprivation pain excessive environmental stimulation. 1.3.40 If a child or young person is thought to be at increased risk of seizures (for example because they have had seizures before or because of an existing brain disorder), include seizure management in their Advance Care Plan. Think about the benefits and drawbacks of specific seizure treatments and: End of life care for infants, children and young people with life-limiting conditions: planning and management (NG61

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

93. Major trauma: assessment and initial management

to maintain central circulation until control is achieved. 1.5.21 For patients who have haemorrhagic shock and a traumatic brain injury: if haemorrhagic shock is the dominant condition, continue restrictive volume resuscitation or or if traumatic brain injury is the dominant condition, use a less restrictive volume resuscitation approach to maintain cerebral perfusion. Fluid replacement in pre-hospital and hospital settings Fluid replacement in pre-hospital and hospital settings 1.5.22 In pre-hospital (...) injury 5 1.2 Airway management in pre-hospital and hospital settings 5 1.3 Management of chest trauma in pre-hospital settings 6 1.4 Management of chest trauma in hospital settings 7 1.5 Management of haemorrhage in pre-hospital and hospital settings 7 1.6 Reducing heat loss in pre-hospital and hospital settings 12 1.7 Pain management in pre-hospital and hospital settings 12 1.8 Documentation in pre-hospital and hospital settings 13 1.9 Information and support for patients, family members and carers

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

94. Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Syncope

1929 7.1.2 Documentation of key features during an attack 1929 7.1.2.1 Management of psychogenic pseudosyncope 1930 8. Neurological causes and mimics of syncope 1930 8.1 Clinical conditions 1930 8.1.1 Autonomic failure 1930 8.1.2 Epilepsy and ictal asystole 1930 8.1.3 Cerebrovascular disorders 1930 8.1.4 Migraine 1931 8.1.5 Cataplexy 1932 8.1.6 Drop attacks 1932 8.2 Neurological tests 1932 8.2.1 Electroencephalography 1932 8.2.2 Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging 1932 8.2.3 (...) attack; TLOC = transient loss of consciousness. The clinical features characterizing TLOC are usually derived from history taking from patients and eyewitnesses. Specific characteristics that aid diagnosis are outlined in section 3 of the . TLOC groups are defined using pathophysiology: the qualifying criterion for syncope is cerebral hypoperfusion; for epileptic seizures, it is abnormal excessive brain activity; and for psychogenic TLOC it is the psychological process of conversion. The syncope

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2018 European Society of Cardiology

95. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV

of the spinal cord, brain and the bone and tissues that surround it. Neural tube defects occur when the neural tube fails to completely form; this formation takes place between 0 and 28 days after conception (38). The causes of neural tube defects are multifactorial and may be related to folate deficiency, use of certain medications or an underlying family history (39). This signal for potential safety concern has been identified from an analysis of an ongoing observational study in Botswana that has found

2019 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

96. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children

scientific statement on pediatric stroke was published 10 years ago. Although stroke has long been recognized as an adult health problem causing substantial morbidity and mortality, it is also an important cause of acquired brain injury in young patients, occurring most commonly in the neonate and throughout childhood. This scientific statement represents a synthesis of data and a consensus of the leading experts in childhood cardiovascular disease and stroke. Methods— Members of the writing group were (...) health problem causing substantial morbidity and mortality, it is also an important cause of acquired brain injury in young patients, occurring most commonly in the neonate and throughout childhood. This scientific statement represents a synthesis of data and a consensus of the leading experts in childhood cardiovascular disease and stroke. Overview of Childhood and Perinatal Stroke Introduction and Definition The standard adult definition of stroke—an acute onset neurological sign or symptom

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2019 American Heart Association

97. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

. CVD prevalence excluding hypertension (CHD, HF, and stroke only) is 9.0% overall (24.3 million in 2016). In 2016, 2 744 248 resident deaths were registered in the United States. Ten leading causes accounted for 74.1% of all registered deaths. The 10 leading causes of death in 2016 were the same as in 2015; these include heart disease (No. 1), cancer (No. 2), unintentional injuries (No. 3), chronic lower respiratory diseases (No. 4), stroke (No. 5), Alzheimer disease (No. 6), DM (No. 7), influenza (...) and pneumonia (No. 8), kidney disease (No. 9), and suicide (No. 10). Seven of the 10 leading causes of death had a decrease in age-adjusted death rates. The age-adjusted death rates decreased 1.8% for heart disease, 1.7% for cancer, 2.4% for chronic lower respiratory diseases, 0.8% for stroke, 1.4% for DM, 11.2% for influenza and pneumonia, and 2.2% for kidney disease. The age-adjusted rate increased 9.7% for unintentional injuries, 3.1% for Alzheimer disease, and 1.5% for suicide. In 2016, ≈17.6 million

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2019 American Heart Association

98. AIM Clinical Appropriateness Guidelines for Genetic Testing for Single-Gene and Multifactorial Conditions

autism spectrum disorder • Non-syndromic global developmental delay or intellectual disability • Multiple congenital anomalies not specific to a well-delineated genetic syndrome • Known or suspected infantile or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (onset before three years of age) for which likely non-genetic causes of epilepsy (e.g. environmental exposures; brain injury secondary to complications of extreme prematurity, infection, trauma) have been excluded For oncologic indications, please see

2019 AIM Specialty Health

99. Vascular imaging

Ordering of Multiple Studies 5 Simultaneous Ordering of Multiple Studies 5 Repeated Imaging 5 Pre-Test Requirements 6 History 6 Vascular Imaging 7 General Information/Overview 7 Scope 7 Technology Considerations 7 Definitions 7 Clinical Indications 9 General Vascular 9 Congenital or developmental vascular anomalies 9 Traumatic vascular injury 9 Tumor 9 Vasculitis 10 Procedure-related Imaging 10 Procedure-related Imaging 10 Brain, Head and Neck 11 Aneurysm – intracranial 11 Arterial thromboembolic (...) when determining whether additional imaging is required. General Vascular Congenital or developmental vascular anomalies Advanced imaging is considered medically necessary for diagnosis and management when the results of imaging will impact treatment decisions. IMAGING STUDY - CTA or MRA brain, neck, chest, abdomen and pelvis, or extremities (based on location) - CT or MRI brain - CT or MRI chest Traumatic vascular injury Advanced imaging is considered medically necessary for evaluation when

2019 AIM Specialty Health

100. Spine imaging

Infectious and Inflammatory Conditions 12 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Pediatric only) 12 Multiple sclerosis or other white matter disease 12 Rheumatoid arthritis (Adult only) 12 Spinal infection 13 Spondyloarthropathy 13 Trauma 14 Cervical injury 14 Thoracic or lumbar injury 14 Tumor 15 Tumor 15 Miscellaneous Conditions of the Spine 15 Osteoporosis and osteopenia 15 Spinal cord infarction 16 Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis 16 Syringomyelia 16 Signs and Symptoms 16 Cauda equina syndrome 16 (...) circumstances that support the medically necessity of performing all imaging studies simultaneously. Examples of multiple imaging studies that may require a peer-to-peer conversation include: ? CT brain and CT sinus for headache ? MRI brain and MRA brain for headache ? MRI cervical spine and MRI shoulder for pain indications ? MRI lumbar spine and MRI hip for pain indications ? MRI or CT of multiple spine levels for pain or radicular indications ? MRI foot and MRI ankle for pain indications ? Bilateral

2019 AIM Specialty Health

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