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61. KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury

KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury VOLUME 2 | ISSUE 1 | MARCH 2012 http://www.kidney-international.org OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury KI_SuppCover_2.1.indd 1 KI_SuppCover_2.1.indd 1 2/7/12 12:32 PM 2/7/12 12:32 PMKDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Acute Kidney Injury Tables and Figures iv Notice 1 Work Group Membership 2 KDIGO Board Members 3 Reference Keys 4 Abbreviations (...) diseases and disorders AKI Acute kidney injury AKIN Acute Kidney Injury Network ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time ARB Angiotensin-receptor blocker(s) ARF Acute renal failure ARFTN AcuteRenalFailureTrialNetwork ATN Acute tubular necrosis AUC Area under the curve BMI Body mass index BUN Blood urea nitrogen CDC Centers for Disease Control CHF Congestive heart failure CI Con?dence interval CI-AKI Contrast-induced acute kidney injury CIT Conventional insulin therapy

2012 National Kidney Foundation

62. A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guidelines on Acute Kidney Injury: Part 1: definitions, conservative management and contrast-induced nephropathy

A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guidelines on Acute Kidney Injury: Part 1: definitions, conservative management and contrast-induced nephropathy NDT Perspectives A European Renal Best Practice (ERBP) position statement on the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Clinical Practice Guidelines on Acute Kidney Injury: Part 1: de?nitions, conservative management and contrast-induced (...) Department of Nephrology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium Correspondence and offprint requests to: Wim Van Biesen; E-mail: wim.vanbiesen@ugent.be † This document has been produced according to the instructions forauthors of ERBP (see www.european-renal-best-practice.org). Keywords: acute kidney injury; contrast-induced nephropathy, diagnosis, guideline, prevention Introduction The broad clinical syndrome of acute kidney injury (AKI) encompasses various aetiologies, including speci?c kidney

2012 European Renal Best Practice

63. Safety Helmets, Efficacy of in Reduction of Head Injuries in Recreational Skiers and Snowboarders

] In one study, skiers had concussion 60% of the time while snowboarders had a concussion 21% of the time, with the remaining individuals sustaining a more severe degree of head injuries. [16 ] Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is fatal among skiers and snowboarders of all ages, contributing to 42.5 – 88% of all injury related deaths in different studies. [7] [17] [18] [19] Often these individuals were not wearing safety helmets. [6] [20] TBI accounted for 29% of all injuries requiring admission (...) in different combinations with Boolean operators: 'equipment', 'helmet', 'helmet use', 'head protective devices', 'skiing', 'skiers', 'snowboarders', 'snowboarding', 'snow sports', 'injury', 'head injury', 'head trauma', 'traumatic brain injury', 'craniocerebral trauma', 'neck injury', 'cervical spine injury', 'winter sports' and 'risk compensation behavior'. Only published citations involving human participants (all ages, both genders) between January, 1980 and April, 2011 were selected for initial review

2011 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

64. ACR-ASNR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Computed Tomography (CT) of the Brain

. Evaluation of cerebral perfusion parameters measured by perfusion CT in chronic cerebral ischemia: comparison with xenon CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2002;26:272-278. 14. Gentry LR. Imaging of closed head injury. Radiology 1994;191:1-17. 15. Griffiths PD, Wilkinson ID, Patel MC, et al. Acute neuromedical and neurosurgical admissions. Standard and ultrafast MR imaging of the brain compared with cranial CT. Acta Radiol 2000;41:401-409. 16. Hakimelahi R, Gonzalez RG. Neuroimaging of ischemic stroke with CT (...) ACR-ASNR Practice Guideline for the Performance of Computed Tomography (CT) of the Brain PRACTICE GUIDELINE CT Brain / 1 The American College of Radiology, with more than 30,000 members, is the principal organization of radiologists, radiation oncologists, and clinical medical physicists in the United States. The College is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science of radiology, improve radiologic services to the patient, study the socioeconomic aspects

2010 American Society of Neuroradiology

65. Determining brain death in adults

intoxication, high cervical spinal cord injury, lidocaine toxicity, baclofen overdose, and delayed vecuronium clearance. The description of the examinations provided in these studies indicated that a complete brain death examination was not performed in any of these patients. We found no reports in peer-reviewed medical journals of recovery of brain function after a determination of brain death using the AAN practice parameter. Conclusion. In adults, recovery of neurologic function has not been reported (...) MW. Coma mimicking brain death following baclofen overdose. Intensive Care Med 2000 ; 26 : 1144 –1146. Richard IH, LaPointe M, Wax P, Risher W. Non-barbiturate, drug-induced reversible loss of brainstem reflexes. Neurology 1998 ; 51 : 639 –640. Waters CE, French G, Burt M. Difficulty in brainstem death testing in the presence of high spinal cord injury. Br J Anaesth 2004 ; 92 : 760 –764. Peter JV, Prabhakar AT, Pichamuthu K. In-laws, insecticide-and a mimic of brain death. Lancet 2008 ; 371 : 622

2010 American Academy of Neurology

66. Early management of patients with a head injury

of patients are fully conscious (see Table 1), without a history of loss of consciousness or amnesia or other signs of brain damage. 9-11 Table 1: Level of responsiveness in 7,656 patients with a head injury attending ED in Scotland 9-12 gCs (/15) adults Children 15 93% 96% 9-14 6% 3.5% =8 1% 0.5% 1.1.2 UPDATING THE EvIDENCE Guidelines for the management of patients with a head injury were first endorsed by the Department of Health in 1983 13 and the expansion of trauma services and greater availability (...) should be followed up after discharge. The guideline does not discuss the detailed management of more severe head injuries, either pre- or in-hospital, which are already incorporated into guidelines from the American College of Surgeons, 4 the American Association of Neurosurgeons/Brain Trauma Foundation, 18 the European Brain Injury Consortium, 19 the Association of Anaesthetists/British Neuroanaesthesia Society, 20 and the Society of British Neurological Surgeons. 21 1.2.2 TARGET USERS

2009 SIGN

67. Helmet Efficacy to Reduce Head Injury and Mortality in Motorcycle Crashes

crash is as high as 4.3 times to a low of 1.7 times higher than after a helmeted crash in nine retrospective cross-sectional studies. However, for severe head injuries, most commonly defined as an Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥2, the magnitude of the estimate is uniformly larger. For three retrospective studies, the ORs of a severe head injury were 18.1 (12.5–25.3), 4.4 (2.58–7.37), and 3.7 (1.9–7.3), respectively. [13][32][38] Lin et al. showed a 41% increase in trauma-induced brain hemorrhage (...) , Haydel MJ. Louisiana motorcycle fatalities linked to statewide helmet law repeal. J La State Med Soc. 2004;156:151–157. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183–189. Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. 2003;9:257–260. Christian WJ, Carroll M, Meyer K, Vitaz TW, Franklin GA. Motorcycle helmets and head injuries

2010 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

68. Blunt Cerebrovascular Injury

risk factor in two retrospective studies and should not be used as the sole criteria to stratify patients for screening. [20][21] Table 1 Screening Criteria for BCVI adapted from Biffl et al [10] (with permission) Screening Criteria for BCVI Injury mechanism Severe cervical hyperextension/rotation or hyperflexion, particularly if associated with Displaced midface or complex mandibular fracture Closed head injury consistent with diffuse axonal injury Near hanging resulting in anoxic brain injury (...) cervical hematoma Focal neurological deficit Neurologic examination incongruous with CAT scan findings Ischemic stroke on secondary CAT scan Risk factors for BCVI High-energy transfer mechanism with Lefort II or III fracture Cervical spine fracture patterns: subluxation, fractures extending into the transverse foramen, fractures of C1-C3 Basilar skull fracture with carotid canal involvement Diffuse axonal injury with GCS =6 Near hanging with anoxic brain injury Screening Modality Duplex Sonography

2010 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

69. Brain Perfusion SPET using 99mTc-labelled Radiopharmaceutical

of these diseases, known as mild cognitive impairment, SPECT can detect a functional deficit and thus guide prognosis [24]. A.4. Evaluation of traumatic brain injury. SPECT has shown perfusion abnormalities in traumatic brain injury despite normal morphology, and results are considered to have a prognostic value for persistence of neuropsychological sequelae [25]. A.5. Evaluation of suspected inflammation. Perfusion SPECT may be indicated and provide helpful information in progressive inflammatory disorders (...) Brain Perfusion SPET using 99mTc-labelled Radiopharmaceutical GUIDELINES EANM procedure guideline for brain perfusion SPECT using 99m Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, version 2 Özlem L. Kapucu &Flavio Nobili &Andrea Varrone & Jan Booij &Thierry Vander Borght &Kjell Någren & Jacques Darcourt &Klaus Tatsch &Koen J. Van Laere # EANM 2009 Abstract These guidelines summarize the current views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine Neuro- imaging Committee (ENC). The purpose

2009 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

70. Cerebral palsy in adults

memory and cognitive flexibility. As a result of injuries to the frontal lobes of the brain, these processes can be disrupted. Gross Motor F Gross Motor Function Classification System unction Classification System A 5-level clinical classification system that describes the gross motor function of people with cerebral palsy based on self-initiated movement abilities. People assessed as level I are the most able and people assessed as level V are dependent on others for all their mobility needs (...) , despite having enteral anti-dystonic drug treatment or botulinum toxin type A [5] treatment. Provide information and discuss the procedure, including intrathecal baclofen testing, with the person (and their family or carer, if agreed) as described in recommendations 1.3.13 to 1.3.16. Deep br Deep brain stimulation ain stimulation 1.3.25 If adults with cerebral palsy continue to have severe and painful dystonia, despite having enteral anti-dystonic drug treatment or botulinum toxin type A treatment

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

71. Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management

for specialist assessment, carried out on the same day, if they have a clinic blood pressure of 180/120 mmHg and higher with: signs of retinal haemorrhage or papilloedema (accelerated hypertension) or or life-threatening symptoms such as new onset confusion, chest pain, signs of heart failure, or acute kidney injury. [2019] [2019] 1.5.3 Refer people for specialist assessment, carried out on the same day, if they have suspected phaeochromocytoma (for example, labile or postural hypotension, Hypertension (...) vascular disease Past medical history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, heart attack, angina, narrowed peripheral arteries or an interventional procedure. Cardiovascular disease is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It is usually associated with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries (atherosclerosis) and an increased risk of blood clots. It can also be associated with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes through

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

72. Cannabis-based medicinal products

, pay particular attention to the: potential impact on psychological, emotional and cognitive development potential impact of sedation potential impact on structural and functional brain development. 1.5.7 When prescribing cannabis-based medicinal products, advise people to stop any non-prescribed cannabis, including over-the-counter, online and illicit products. Cannabis-based medicinal products (NG144) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms (...) in combination with CBD for se 4 THC in combination with CBD for sev vere treatment-resistant ere treatment-resistant epilepsy epilepsy Does the addition of THC to CBD have an effect on seizure frequency, brain structure and neuropsychological performance when compared with both CBD alone and placebo in epileptic disorders in children, young people and adults? T o find out why the committee made the research recommendation on THC in combination with CBD for severe treatment-resistant epilepsy see rationale

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

73. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management

the possible risks of not offering CT brain imaging to everyone with a suspected TIA. They agreed that, in the absence of clinical 'red flag' indicators (for example, headache, anticoagulation, head injury, repetitive stereotyped events), it is rare for a CT scan to reveal an alternative diagnosis needing a different referral pathway. Therefore, the number of referrals to TIA clinics should not increase greatly. Stroke and transient ischaemic attack in over 16s: diagnosis and initial management (NG128) © (...) diagnosis can be delayed in this population by a non- focal presentation, a reduced conscious level, or both. The main risk of thrombectomy and thrombolysis in this population is intervening when there is established disabling ischaemic brain injury. For example, if a person with basilar artery occlusion has irreversible bilateral damage to the pons, they may be left with locked-in-syndrome with complete face and body paralysis but clear consciousness, even if the basilar artery is opened. The committee

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

74. Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral

that BPPV is common after a head injury or labyrinthitis. V Vestibular migr estibular migraine aine 1.2.7 Be alert to the possibility of vestibular migraine (migraine-associated vertigo) in adults who have episodes of dizziness that last between 5 minutes and 72 hours and a history of recurrent headache. Recurrent dizziness as part of a functional neurological disorder Recurrent dizziness as part of a functional neurological disorder 1.2.8 Be aware that, for adults who have been diagnosed (...) to days) progressive weakness of a single limb or hemiparesis for investigation, including neuroimaging, in line with the recommendation on brain and central nervous system cancers in adults in the NICE guideline on suspected cancer. Slowly progressiv Slowly progressive limb or neck weakness e limb or neck weakness 1.7.5 For adults with slowly (within weeks to months) progressive limb or neck weakness: Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral (NG127) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

75. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis and management

of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 8 of 62disorders, learning disability [intellectual disability] and specific learning difficulties) adults with a mental health condition people with a history of substance misuse people known to the Youth Justice System or Adult Criminal Justice System people with acquired brain injury. [2018] [2018] 1.2.2 Be aware that ADHD is thought to be under-recognised in girls and women and that: they are less likely to be referred (...) or acquired brain injury). [2018] [2018] T o find out why the committee made the 2018 recommendations on medication – considerations when prescribing and dose titration, and how they might affect practice, see rationale and impact. Shared care for medication Shared care for medication 1.7.29 After titration and dose stabilisation, prescribing and monitoring of ADHD medication should be carried out under Shared Care Protocol arrangements with primary care. [2018] [2018] T o find out why the committee made

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

76. Venous thromboembolism in over 16s: reducing the risk of hospital-acquired deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism

] earlier than 24 hours after the operation for people undergoing cranial surgery. Base the decision on multidisciplinary or senior opinion, or a locally agreed protocol. [2018] [2018] 1.12.10 Do not offer pharmacological VTE prophylaxis to people with ruptured cranial vascular malformations (for example, brain aneurysms) or people with intracranial haemorrhage (spontaneous or traumatic) until the lesion has been secured or the condition has stabilised. [2018] [2018] Spinal injury Spinal injury 1.12.11 (...) 1.5 Interventions for people with renal impairment 13 1.6 Interventions for people with cancer 13 1.7 Interventions for people having palliative care 14 1.8 Interventions for people admitted to critical care 14 1.9 Interventions for people with psychiatric illness 15 1.10 Interventions when using anaesthesia 16 1.11 Interventions for people having orthopaedic surgery 16 1.12 Interventions for people having elective spinal surgery or cranial surgery or people with spinal injury 20 1.13

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

77. Decision-making and mental capacity

– for example working with people with impaired executive function arising from acquired brain injury, mental illness, dementia or other illness. 1.2 Supporting decision-making 'A person is not to be treated as unable to make a decision unless all practicable steps to help him do so have been taken without success. ' (Principle 2, section 1(3), Mental Capacity Act 2005) Principle 2 of the Mental Capacity Act 2005 requires practitioners to help a person make their own decision, before deciding (...) psychologists or other professionals to support communication during an assessment of capacity. 1.4.18 Where the person has identified communication needs, the assessor should also think about using communication tools to help with the assessment. 1.4.19 Practitioners should be aware that it may be more difficult to assess capacity in people with executive dysfunction – for example people with traumatic brain injury. Structured assessments of capacity for individuals in this group (for example, by way

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

78. Canadian guideline for Parkinson disease

and written form. n Discussions should aim to achieve a balance between providing realistic information and promoting optimism. n Families and caregivers should be informed about the condition and available support services. DIAGNOSIS AND PROGRESSION n Parkinson disease should be suspected in anyone with tremor, stiness, slowness, balance problems or gait disorders. n CT or MRI brain scanning should not be routinely used to diagnose Parkinson disease. n Patients, especially young, who request genetic (...) testing should be assessed by a movement disorders specialist. n No therapies are eective for slowing or stopping brain degeneration in Parkinson disease. NONMOTOR FEATURES n Botulinum toxin A helps control drooling. n Drug therapy for low blood pressure includes midodrine, udrocortisone and domperidone. n Management of depression should be tailored to the individual and their current therapy. n Dementia should not exclude a diagnosis of Parkinson disease, even if present early. n Rapid eye movement

2019 CPG Infobase

79. Guidelines for diagnosing and managing pediatric concussion

Neurotrauma Foundation (ONF) is a health research organization that focuses on the practical application of research to improve the lives of people with an acquired brain inquiry or spinal cord injury, and the prevention of neurotrauma injuries. Through strategic research funding activity and the building of relationships with numerous partners and stakeholders, the ONF fosters, gathers and applies research knowledge to increase the effectiveness and use of prevention, and to improve the systems of care (...) group. These guidelines also do not apply to children/adolescents who have moderate-to-severe closed head injuries, moderate-to-severe developmental delays, neurological disorders, penetrating brain injuries or brain damage from other causes, such as injuries at birth or in infancy. General Directions for Clinical Use We expect that children/adolescents who have sustained a head injury will visit a health care professional soon after the incident for a primary assessment. In this scenario, health

2019 CPG Infobase

80. Parkinson?s disease in adults

disease and their carers 5 1.2 Diagnosing Parkinson's disease 6 1.3 Pharmacological management of motor symptoms 7 1.4 Managing and monitoring impulse control disorders as an adverse effect of dopaminergic therapy ... 11 1.5 Pharmacological management of non-motor symptoms 13 1.6 Pharmacological neuroprotective therapy 16 1.7 Non-pharmacological management of motor and non-motor symptoms 17 1.8 Deep brain stimulation and levodopa–carbidopa intestinal gel 19 1.9 Palliative care 19 Putting (...) Parkinson's disease in people presenting with tremor, stiffness, slowness, balance problems and/or gait disorders. [2006] [2006] 1.2.2 If Parkinson's disease is suspected, refer people quickly and untreated to a specialist with expertise in the differential diagnosis of this condition. [2006, [2006, amended 2017] amended 2017] Clinical and post-mortem diagnosis Clinical and post-mortem diagnosis 1.2.3 Diagnose Parkinson's disease clinically, based on the UK Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

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