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1881. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome - Genetic Basis, Diagnosis, and Management: An Official ATS Clinical Policy Statement

suggested that PA mutations can also prevent the normal proteinfromitsusualfunctionbecauseofabnormalaggregation with the mutant (6, 18). In the attempt to assess the fate of cells expressing PA- expanded PHOX2B, in vitro experiments have demonstrated that activation of the heat-shock response by the drug geldana- mycin, a naturally occurring antibiotic, is ef?cient both in preventingformationandininducingtheclearanceofPHOX2B preformed PA aggregates and, ultimately, also in rescuing the PHOX2B ability

2010 American Thoracic Society

1883. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Percutaneous Drainage/Aspiration of Abscess and Fluid Collections

- rationfortreatmentoftubo-ovarianab- scess:astudyof302cases.AmJObstet Gynecol 2005; 193:1323–1330. 7. Gupta S, Suri S, Gulati M, Singh P. Ilio-psoas abscesses: percutaneous drainage under image guidance. Clin Radiol 1997; 52:704–707. 8. Leborgne F, Leborgne F. Treatment of breast abscesses with sonographi- cally guided aspiration, irrigation, and instillation of antibiotics. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003; 181:1089–1091. 9. Siewert B, Tye G, Kruskal J, Sosna J, Opelka F. Impact of CT-guided drainage in the treatment

2010 Society of Interventional Radiology

1884. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography, Biliary Drainage, and Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

- cations of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography should be low. All patientsshouldbetreatedwithappro- priate antibiotics before needle punc- ture (1–4,62,63). Complication rates are listed in Table 7. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage The complication rate for transhepatic biliary drainage can be substantial, and varies with preprocedure patient status and diagnosis (Table 8)(10,28–30,32,33, 64–66). Patients with coagulopathies, cholangitis, stones, malignant obstruc- tion (...) ,orproximalobstructionwillhave higher complication rates (9,32,65,67,68). Several authors have suggested that complications related to internal/ex- ternal tubes as a result of inadequate bileflowandtubedislodgment(sepsis andhemorrhage)canbeminimizedby placing a self-retaining tube of at least 10 F through the ampulla or anasto- mosis (8,10,64). All patients should be treated with appropriate antibiotics before initiating the procedures to minimize septic complications (62,63). The duration of antibiotic therapy af- ter

2010 Society of Interventional Radiology

1886. Induction of fetal demise before abortion

- oldwomanat22weekswhoreceivedaselectivetermination byintrafunicKClinjectionanddevelopedsepsis2dayslater. She presented to the hospital febrile with signs of chorioamnionitis and expelled the pregnancy 2 h later. Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered and she was transferred to intensive care for 1 day. After another 6 days, she was discharged in good condition without needing a hysterectomy. Blood and fecal cultures grew C. perfringens [21]. Other cases of infection have been documented in patients who received a feticidal injection (see (...) Table 2), but none as serious as the previous case. One case of amnionitis was reported in 1996 involving selective termination that resolved with antibiotics [55]. In another series of multifetal pregnancyreductionthereweretwocasesofamnionitis,one of which resolved with antibiotics, and the other required immediate uterine evacuation, neither of which had any further sequelae [61]. Table 2 Complications Author Year Regimen Dose Gestation Complication Resolution Molaei et al. [69] 2008 Intrafetal

2010 Society of Family Planning

1888. Management of post-transplant lymphproliferative disorder

in Burkitt lymphoma if patients are deemed fit enough to undergo this type of therapy. Low grade B cell lymphoma Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas, MALT‐type may occur in any mucosal tissue and have been described post transplant ( ). MALT lymphoma is commonly localized to the stomach and is usually Helicobacter pylori ‐related. Antibiotic eradication therapy is often effective in the non‐transplant population, however, patients with persistent symptomatic disease post‐antibiotics or Helicobacter pylori (...) ) and/or prophylactic antibiotics have shown death from infection rates during chemotherapy from 0–30% with chemotherapy. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidance for the use of colony stimulating factors suggests primary prophylaxis in patients with high risk of febrile neutropenia based on coexisting medical problems ( ). Therefore, it would seem appropriate to use G‐SCF as primary prophylaxis in this patient group. Given the degree of immunosuppression in patients with PTLD, consideration should

2010 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

1889. WHO guidelines on drawing blood: best practices in phlebotomy

and is thus important for preventing laboratory error, patient injury and even death. For example, the touch of a finger to verify the location of a vein before insertion of the needle increases the chance that a specimen will be contaminated. This can cause false blood culture results, prolong hospitalization, delay diagnosis and cause unnecessary use of antibiotics. Jostling and jarring of test tubes in transit can lyse or break open red blood cells, causing false laboratory results. Clerical errors

2010 World Health Organisation Guidelines

1890. Best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit

hygiene before and after contact with every patient is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection • When hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with proteinaceous material, wash them with antibacterial or plain soap and running water, then dry them using single-use paper towels • When hands appear clean (i.e. are not visibly soiled), clean them with an alcohol-based hand product for routine decontamination, then dry them using single-use paper towels • Ensure hands are dry (...) before starting any activity • DO NOT use alcohol-based hand products when hands are visibly soiled • DO NOT use alcohol- based hand products after exposure of nonintact skin to blood or body fluids; in such cases, wash hands with antibacterial or plain soap and running water, then dry them using single- use paper towels 2.1.2 Gloves Health workers should wear non-sterile, well-fitting latex or latex-free gloves when coming into contact with blood or blood products (26). Indications for glove use

2010 World Health Organisation Guidelines

1891. Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Syncope

. Several drugs can cause brady- and tachyarrhythmias. Many antiarrhythmic drugs can cause bradycardia as a consequence of their speci?c effect on sinus node function or AV conduction. Syncope due to torsade de pointes is not uncommon, especially in women, and is caused by drugs prolonging the QT interval. It is particulary frequent in patients affected by the long QT syndrome. QT-prolonging drugs belong to different categories, i.e. antiarrhythmics, vasodilators, psychotropics, antimicrobials, non

2009 European Society of Cardiology

1892. Guidelines on Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 The valve endothelium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 Transient bacteraemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 Microbial pathogens and host defences . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 E. Preventive measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2375 Evidence justifying the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis in previous ESC recommendations 2375 Reasons justifying revision of previous ESC Guidelines . . 2375 Principles of the new (...) assessment at admission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2383 H. Antimicrobial therapy: principles and methods . . . . . . . . . 2383 General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2383 Penicillin-susceptible oral streptococci and group D streptococci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2384 Penicillin-resistant oral streptococci and group D streptococci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2384 Streptococcus pneumoniae, b-haemolytic

2009 European Society of Cardiology

1894. Management of STIs and related conditions in children and young people

of antimicrobial therapy for PID in children. The following recommendations are based on the evidence from adult trials modified for paediatric use. Quinolones cause arthropathy in the weight-bearing joints of immature animals and are therefore generally not recommended in children and growing adolescents. However, the significance of this effect in humans is uncertain and in some specific circumstances short-term use of a quinolone in children may be justified. Quinolones should not usually be used to treat

2010 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

1895. The Anaesthesia Team 3

to local/minor modification as time progresses. NB. In Scotland the process is slightly different. Briefing and de-briefing are as above. Then in three parts: i. Sending for the patient: name, procedure and ward check, ii. Surgical pause: before the commencement of anaesthesia the anaesthetist and assistant, surgeon operating, and theatre team member check name, date of birth, armband, consent, allergies, thromboprophylaxis, antibiotics and staff competencies, iii. End of procedure: swab and instrument

2010 Association of Anaesthetists of GB and Ireland

1896. Postsplenectomy infection - strategies for prevention in general practice

it. Discussion Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 50% of cases of OPSI. Strategies to prevent OPSI include education; vaccination against S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and influenza (annually); and daily antibiotics for at least 2 years postsplenectomy and emergency antibiotics in case of infection. Asplenic patients should carry a medical alert and an up-to-date vaccination card. Asplenic patients require specific advice around travel and animal handling (...) as they are at increased risk of severe malaria, and OPSI (due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus) may result from dog, cat or other animal bites. The Victorian Spleen Registry was established to improve adherence to best practice preventive guidelines and thereby reduce the incidence of OPSI. Keywords: splenectomy; antibiotic prophylaxis; immunisation; patient education as a topic reasons for surgical removal of the spleen are: trauma (40%), haematological disorders and malignancies (35%), and incidental trauma at the time

2010 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

1897. Meningococcal sepsis

presenting with fever, lethargy, myalgia, vomiting and headache. These children should be monitored and reviewed carefully. If a nonblanching rash develops, immediate treatment, liaison with a paediatric intensive care unit and urgent hospital transfer is required. Initial management involves assessment and regular review of airway, breathing and circulation. Antibiotics (preferably intravenous cephalosporin) should be administered before hospital transfer. Meningococcal disease, presenting as either (...) meningitis or septicaemia, remains a significant illness, even with the introduction of the conjugate meningococcal C vaccine. Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis and mainly affects children under the age of 5 years and adolescents. The overall mortality of the disease is around 8% (5% for meningitis and 15–20% for sepsis), which is improved significantly with the early administration of antibiotics. 1–3 The majority of deaths occur in the first 24 hours, before

2010 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

1898. Japanese encephalitis prevention in travellers

ational health and medical Research council. t he Australian immunisation handbook. 9th edn. canberra: nhm Rc, 2008. 6. Burchard GD, caumes e, connor BA, et al. expert opinion on vaccination of travelers against j apanese encephalitis. j ournal of travel medicine 2009;16:204–16. 7. steffen R, Banos A, deBernardis c. Vaccination pri- orities. international j ournal of Antimicrobial Agents 2003;21:175–80. 8. shlim D, solomon t. j apanese encephalitis vaccine for travelers: exploring the limits of risk

2010 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

1899. Congenital syphilis: No longer just of historical interest

with a second type of TT) at 18 months of age Yes 0, 3, 6 and 18 months of age Yes Yes Mother was treated for primary, secondary or eraly latent syphilis within four weeks before delivery, or was treated with an antibiotic other than penicillin, OR mother was treated for primary, secondary or early latent syphilis before or during the pregnancy and her RPR titre did not show the expected decline or inadequate time has passed to assess the decline Yes If treated for congenital syphilis, do at 0, 3, 6 and 18 (...) of maternal serological results at delivery. Which infants need treatment, and with what antibiotics? Case definitions for congenital syphilis lack consistency because the diagnosis is usually presumptive , leading to discrepant recommendations regarding treatment in different scenarios. summarizes the recommendations. The treatment of choice is a 10-day course of intravenous crystalline penicillin G of 50,000 units/kg given every 12 h to infants younger than one week of age, every 8 h to infants one

2009 Canadian Paediatric Society

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