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1861. The role of endoscopy in the management of patients with known and suspected colonic obstruction and pseudo-obstruction

, magnesium, calcium, and thyroid functions) with paren- teral correction where appropriate. Blood cultures and empiric antibiotics are indicated if sepsis is suspected clinically. Management should also include discontinua- tion of narcotics, anticholinergic agents, and any other possibly offending medications, exclusion of abdominal infection, mobilization out of bed, if feasible, and appro- priate medical and surgical management for signi?cant concurrent illnesses. Conservative management usually

2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

1864. Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Guidelines: Pulmonary Complications: Hemoptysis and Pneumothorax

with mild-to-moderate hemoptysis should always be admitted to the hospital. 5 3.75–7.25 Some The patient with massive hemoptysis should always be admitted to the hospital. 10 10–10 Perfect The patient with scant hemoptysis, but no other features of an acute pulmonary exacerbation, should always be treated with antibiotics. 3 2–5 Good The patient with mild-to-moderate hemoptysis should always be treated with antibiotics. 9 8–9 Very good The patient with massive hemoptysis should always be treated (...) with antibiotics. 10 9–10 Very good The patient with scant hemoptysis should stop NSAIDs. 7 3.75–8 Good The patient with mild-to-moderate hemoptysis should stop NSAIDs. 9 8–10 Good The patient with massive hemoptysis should stop NSAIDs. 10 10–10 Very good The patient who presented with massive hemoptysis and who is clinically stable but is no longer coughing up blood should always be treated with BAE. 4 2–8 None The patient with massive hemoptysis who is clinically unstable should always be treated with BAE. 9

2010 Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

1865. Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Laparoscopic Biliary Tract Surgery

procedure, known dense adhesions in the upper abdomen, known gallbladder cancer, and surgeon preference. Relative contra-indications for laparoscopic biliary tract surgery Untreated coagulopathy, lack of equipment, lack of surgeon expertise, hostile abdomen, advanced cirrhosis/liver failure, and suspected gallbladder cancer.(Level II, Grade A). V. PRE OPERATIVE PREPARATION A. Antibiotic Prophylaxis. Preoperative antibiotics in elective laparoscopic biliary tract surgery have been discussed with strong (...) opinions on both sides. A recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials concluded prophylactic antibiotics do not prevent infections in low risk patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while the usefulness of prophylaxis in high risk patients (age > 60 years, the presence of diabetes, acute colic within 30 days of operation, jaundice, acute cholecystitis, or cholangitis) remains uncertain. [8] The most recent randomized, prospective study included in the above mentioned meta-analysis

2010 Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons

1866. Care of the Patient with Ocular Surface Disorders

to this layer comes from the accessory exocrine lacrimal glands of Krause and Wolfring. 19,20 The aqueous layer contains lysozyme and proteins, including lactoferrin, that exhibit antibacterial activities. Laboratory analysis may prove useful for diagnostic evaluation of the aqueous layer. The innermost layer of the POTF is the mucous layer. Produced primarily by the goblet cells of the conjunctiva, mucus lubricates the lids and serves as an adsorbing interface between the aqueous layer and the hydrophobic (...) , a minimal lower lid tear meniscus, increased mucous threads in the tear film, corneal and conjunctival staining, filamentary keratitis, and loss of corneal luster. Instability of the tear film can initiate ocular surface complications. 89 Decreased aqueous volume is associated with reduced ocular surface defense and increased susceptibility to irritation, allergy, and infection due to tear stagnation and epithelial compromise. 90-93 A major consequence of reduced aqueous volume is reduced antibacterial

2010 American Optometric Association

1867. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome - Genetic Basis, Diagnosis, and Management: An Official ATS Clinical Policy Statement

suggested that PA mutations can also prevent the normal proteinfromitsusualfunctionbecauseofabnormalaggregation with the mutant (6, 18). In the attempt to assess the fate of cells expressing PA- expanded PHOX2B, in vitro experiments have demonstrated that activation of the heat-shock response by the drug geldana- mycin, a naturally occurring antibiotic, is ef?cient both in preventingformationandininducingtheclearanceofPHOX2B preformed PA aggregates and, ultimately, also in rescuing the PHOX2B ability

2010 American Thoracic Society

1869. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Percutaneous Drainage/Aspiration of Abscess and Fluid Collections

- rationfortreatmentoftubo-ovarianab- scess:astudyof302cases.AmJObstet Gynecol 2005; 193:1323–1330. 7. Gupta S, Suri S, Gulati M, Singh P. Ilio-psoas abscesses: percutaneous drainage under image guidance. Clin Radiol 1997; 52:704–707. 8. Leborgne F, Leborgne F. Treatment of breast abscesses with sonographi- cally guided aspiration, irrigation, and instillation of antibiotics. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2003; 181:1089–1091. 9. Siewert B, Tye G, Kruskal J, Sosna J, Opelka F. Impact of CT-guided drainage in the treatment

2010 Society of Interventional Radiology

1870. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography, Biliary Drainage, and Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

- cations of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography should be low. All patientsshouldbetreatedwithappro- priate antibiotics before needle punc- ture (1–4,62,63). Complication rates are listed in Table 7. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage The complication rate for transhepatic biliary drainage can be substantial, and varies with preprocedure patient status and diagnosis (Table 8)(10,28–30,32,33, 64–66). Patients with coagulopathies, cholangitis, stones, malignant obstruc- tion (...) ,orproximalobstructionwillhave higher complication rates (9,32,65,67,68). Several authors have suggested that complications related to internal/ex- ternal tubes as a result of inadequate bileflowandtubedislodgment(sepsis andhemorrhage)canbeminimizedby placing a self-retaining tube of at least 10 F through the ampulla or anasto- mosis (8,10,64). All patients should be treated with appropriate antibiotics before initiating the procedures to minimize septic complications (62,63). The duration of antibiotic therapy af- ter

2010 Society of Interventional Radiology

1872. Induction of fetal demise before abortion

- oldwomanat22weekswhoreceivedaselectivetermination byintrafunicKClinjectionanddevelopedsepsis2dayslater. She presented to the hospital febrile with signs of chorioamnionitis and expelled the pregnancy 2 h later. Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered and she was transferred to intensive care for 1 day. After another 6 days, she was discharged in good condition without needing a hysterectomy. Blood and fecal cultures grew C. perfringens [21]. Other cases of infection have been documented in patients who received a feticidal injection (see (...) Table 2), but none as serious as the previous case. One case of amnionitis was reported in 1996 involving selective termination that resolved with antibiotics [55]. In another series of multifetal pregnancyreductionthereweretwocasesofamnionitis,one of which resolved with antibiotics, and the other required immediate uterine evacuation, neither of which had any further sequelae [61]. Table 2 Complications Author Year Regimen Dose Gestation Complication Resolution Molaei et al. [69] 2008 Intrafetal

2010 Society of Family Planning

1873. Laboratory Tests in the Diagnosis of Allergic Diseases

significant sensitivity, e.g. older children can retain positive RAST tests to egg and are able to eat pavlova or scrambled eggs without symptoms. Conversely, a negative result does not necessarily exclude clinically significant allergy . Anaphylaxis (e.g. following administration of an antibiotic) can cause a transient drop in allergen-specific IgE sufficient to cause "false negative" results. In addition, patients can remain allergic to substances despite their serum IgE levels declining to undetectable (...) practitioner for the performance of the test Suitable for patients with Skin disease Dermatographism Recent antihistamine Rx Infancy / cord blood sampling Severe anaphylaxis in whom there is a concern that skin testing may provoke an anaphylactic reaction (foods, latex, stinging insects, antibiotics) Expensive Less sensitive than Skin Tests RAST tests to "mixes" of allergen may give falsely negative results Delay before results are available Information is more abstract -i.e. less immediately relevant

2010 Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy

1875. Management of post-transplant lymphproliferative disorder

in Burkitt lymphoma if patients are deemed fit enough to undergo this type of therapy. Low grade B cell lymphoma Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas, MALT‐type may occur in any mucosal tissue and have been described post transplant ( ). MALT lymphoma is commonly localized to the stomach and is usually Helicobacter pylori ‐related. Antibiotic eradication therapy is often effective in the non‐transplant population, however, patients with persistent symptomatic disease post‐antibiotics or Helicobacter pylori (...) ) and/or prophylactic antibiotics have shown death from infection rates during chemotherapy from 0–30% with chemotherapy. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidance for the use of colony stimulating factors suggests primary prophylaxis in patients with high risk of febrile neutropenia based on coexisting medical problems ( ). Therefore, it would seem appropriate to use G‐SCF as primary prophylaxis in this patient group. Given the degree of immunosuppression in patients with PTLD, consideration should

2010 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

1876. WHO guidelines on drawing blood: best practices in phlebotomy

and is thus important for preventing laboratory error, patient injury and even death. For example, the touch of a finger to verify the location of a vein before insertion of the needle increases the chance that a specimen will be contaminated. This can cause false blood culture results, prolong hospitalization, delay diagnosis and cause unnecessary use of antibiotics. Jostling and jarring of test tubes in transit can lyse or break open red blood cells, causing false laboratory results. Clerical errors

2010 World Health Organisation Guidelines

1877. Best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit

hygiene before and after contact with every patient is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection • When hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with proteinaceous material, wash them with antibacterial or plain soap and running water, then dry them using single-use paper towels • When hands appear clean (i.e. are not visibly soiled), clean them with an alcohol-based hand product for routine decontamination, then dry them using single-use paper towels • Ensure hands are dry (...) before starting any activity • DO NOT use alcohol-based hand products when hands are visibly soiled • DO NOT use alcohol- based hand products after exposure of nonintact skin to blood or body fluids; in such cases, wash hands with antibacterial or plain soap and running water, then dry them using single- use paper towels 2.1.2 Gloves Health workers should wear non-sterile, well-fitting latex or latex-free gloves when coming into contact with blood or blood products (26). Indications for glove use

2010 World Health Organisation Guidelines

1878. Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Syncope

. Several drugs can cause brady- and tachyarrhythmias. Many antiarrhythmic drugs can cause bradycardia as a consequence of their speci?c effect on sinus node function or AV conduction. Syncope due to torsade de pointes is not uncommon, especially in women, and is caused by drugs prolonging the QT interval. It is particulary frequent in patients affected by the long QT syndrome. QT-prolonging drugs belong to different categories, i.e. antiarrhythmics, vasodilators, psychotropics, antimicrobials, non

2009 European Society of Cardiology

1879. Guidelines on Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Infective Endocarditis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 The valve endothelium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 Transient bacteraemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 Microbial pathogens and host defences . . . . . . . . . . . . 2374 E. Preventive measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2375 Evidence justifying the use of antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis in previous ESC recommendations 2375 Reasons justifying revision of previous ESC Guidelines . . 2375 Principles of the new (...) assessment at admission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2383 H. Antimicrobial therapy: principles and methods . . . . . . . . . 2383 General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2383 Penicillin-susceptible oral streptococci and group D streptococci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2384 Penicillin-resistant oral streptococci and group D streptococci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2384 Streptococcus pneumoniae, b-haemolytic

2009 European Society of Cardiology

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