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63. 2018 IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy

to either remain in hospital for IV antibiotic therapy or forgo IV antimicrobial treatment [42–45]. Methodology Panel Composition The last version of the IDSA OPAT Guideline was published in 2004 [1]. For the current update, 1 of the chairs assembled 11 ID physicians from both academic and private practice settings, including 3 pediatric ID physicians who are members of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. Also included were an experienced ID pharmacist, a member of the Infusion Nursing Society (...) to SNFs, sending patients home without a VAD but bringing them to an outpatient facility for each antimicrobial administration, or keeping them in hospital for the duration of their parenteral antibiotic treatment course. It should be noted that there are no data to suggest that the risk of device misuse is any lower in SNFs, where patients have ample opportunity for illicit drug administration. Confirmation about whether PWID are at higher risk of vascular access complications during OPAT and, if so

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America

64. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Adult Patients with Cancer-Related Immunosuppression

adverse effects, as well as concerns with antimicrobial resistance, cost considerations, and the physiologic importance to the host of maintaining equilibrium in the diversity and density of the host microbiome, the decision to administer prophylaxis requires balancing benefits and harms. The previous version of this guideline recommended antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis for higher-risk patients and that there was not a high enough baseline risk of FN and infection-related mortality in lower (...) contained within this guideline can be found in the Bottom Line box. GUIDELINE QUESTIONS Section: This clinical practice guideline addresses the following clinical questions: Does antibacterial prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone, compared with placebo, no intervention, or another class of antibiotic reduce the incidence of and mortality related to FN? Does antifungal (antiyeast or antimold) prophylaxis with an oral triazole or parenteral echinocandin, compared with no prophylaxis or another treatment

2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

65. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Oral Surgery for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection

by antimicrobial resistance 6, level III and new antibiotic discovery is not keeping pace with the rates of this antimicrobial resistance. 7, level III Also, an antibiotic administered to a patient can act as an antigenic stimulus and hence produce an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions manifest either locally or systemically at varying degrees of severity ranging from minor skin lesions to anaphylactic shock and death. Antibiotics in general should be used only when the benefits outweigh the risks (...) Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Oral Surgery for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection i TABLE OF CONTENTS GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT AND OBJECTIVES CLINICAL QUESTIONS TARGET POPULATION, TARGET GROUP HEALTHCARE SETTINGS LEVELS OF EVIDENCE AND GRADES OF RECOMMENDATIONS MEMBERS OF THE GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT GROUP MEMBERS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 INDICATIONS FOR PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS 2.1 Patients with underlying medical problems 2.2 Clean surgery 2.3 Clean-contaminated surgery 2.3.1

2015 Ministry of Health, Malaysia

66. Antibiotic prophylaxis for GI endoscopy

of the GI tract (such as cholangitis) and for those who receive antibiotic therapy to prevent wound infection or sepsis associated with a GI tract procedure, it is recommended that the antibiotic regimen include an antimicrobial agent active against enterococci, such as penicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, or vancomycin.44BB Prosthetic cardiac valve History of IE Cardiac transplant recipients who develop cardiac valvulopathy Patients with CHD Unrepaired cyanotic CHD including palliative shunts (...) , gram-negative bacteria, or other microorganisms associated with implantation of the graft or resulting from wound or other active infections. The AHA does not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis after vascular graft or other nonvalvular cardiovascular device placement for patients who undergo GI endoscopic procedures. The AHA recently stated that antimicrobial prophylaxis is not recommended for any endoscopic procedures in patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. 75 Endoscopy

2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

67. Preterm Labour, Antibiotics and Cerebral Palsy

Preterm Labour, Antibiotics and Cerebral Palsy Preterm Labour, Antibiotics, and Cerebral Palsy Scientific Impact Paper No. 33 February 2013Preterm Labour, Antibiotics, and Cerebral Palsy 1. Introduction The rate of preterm birth (pregnancy under 37 +0 weeks of gestation) is 5–9% of all births in Europe, and 12–13% in the United States of America (USA); the rates in both continents increased up to 2008, partly due to the higher number of multiple births associated with assisted conceptions. 1 (...) , emotional and stressful times of their lives, 3 regardless of the longer term outcome. The sequelae of preterm birth also pose significant challenges. Children born preterm are at increased risk of major disabilities such as cerebral palsy. The risk of cerebal palsy increases as gestation at birth decreases. 4 Many children who were born preterm without disability develop significant behavioural and educational difficulties. 5 This paper will examine the evidence for: ? Prescribing antibiotics

2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

68. Use of Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Dental Patients

by the Council on Clinical Affairs and adopted in 2001. This document is a revision of the previous version, last revised in 2009. The revision was based upon a new systematic literature search of the PubMed ® /MEDLINE database using the terms: antibiotic therapy, antibacterial agents, antimicrobial agents, dental trauma, oral wound man- agement, orofacial infections, periodontal disease, viral disease, and oral contraception; fields: all; limits: within the last 10 years, humans, English, clinical trials (...) of systemic involvement (i.e., fever, asymmetry, facial swelling) warrant emergency treatment. Intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or referral for medical management may be indicated. 9-11 Penicillin remains the empirical choice for odontogenic infections; however, consideration of additional adjunctive antimicrobial therapy (i.e., metronidazole) can be given where there is anaerobic bacterial involvement. 8 Dental trauma Systemic antibiotics have been recommended as adjunc- tive therapy for avulsed

2014 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

69. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients at Risk for Infection

, Wilson W, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: Recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA 1997;227(22): 1794-801. 9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/ Antimicrobial resistance. About antimicrobial resistance: A brief overview. Available at: “http://www.cdc.gov/drug resistance/about.html”. Accessed August 20, 2014. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES 391 10. Lockhart PB, Loven B, Brennan MT, Baddour LM, Levinson M (...) Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients at Risk for Infection 386 RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES REFERENCE MANUAL V 40 / NO 6 18 / 19 Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ( AAPD) recognizes that numerous medical conditions predispose pa- tients to bacteremia-induced infections. Because it is not possible to predict when a susceptible patient will develop an infection, prophylactic antibiotics are recommended when these patients undergo procedures that are at risk for produc

2014 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

70. ASCIA Clinical Update - Antibiotic Allergy

allergy. The problem becomes even more complicated when the patient is taking more than one drug. Antibiotic hypersensitivity is usually diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, especially the timing of the reaction after antimicrobial use. If the patient reports an allergy, specific details about the nature of the reaction, the timing, concurrent illnesses and drugs, and the outcome should be sought, documented and provided to the clinical immunology/allergy specialist. 3.2 Skin and blood testing (...) ASCIA Clinical Update - Antibiotic Allergy Disclaimer: ASCIA information is reviewed by ASCIA members and represents the available published literature at the time of review. The content of this document is not intended to replace professional medical advice and any questions regarding a medical diagnosis or treatment should be directed to a medical practitioner. © ASCIA 2014 Antibiotic Allergy Clinical Update This Clinical Update has been adapted, with permission, from the allergy section

2014 Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy

71. General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care

General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Haute Autorité de Santé - General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Fermer Choose language Accessibility Change contrast : Standards Reinforced icone Chercher icone plus Chercher My account My account Please fill in your email address to retrieve your email alerts subscriptions. Please fill in your email address to retrieve your newsletter subscriptions. You do not have (...) principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Practice guidelines - Posted on Feb 24 2014 The purpose of this guidance leaflet is to avoid inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, a source of selection pressure, which leads to the emergence of bacterial resistance and to therapeutic impasses. Each antibiotic prescription must be cautious, balancing : the short-term benefits for the patient, the priority if he/she is indeed suffering from a bacterial infection; the adverse

2014 HAS Guidelines

72. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 7: Antibiotic-impregnated shunt systems versus conventional shunts in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

antimicrobial activity of antibiotic- impregnated cerebrospinal fluid catheters. N e u r o s u r g e r y 5 8 :930–935, 2006 38. Pattavilakom A, Xenos C, Bradfield O, Danks RA: Reduction in shunt infection using antibiotic impregnated CSF shunt catheters: an Australian prospective study. J C l i n N e u r o s c i 14:526–531, 2007 39. Pirotte BJ, Lubansu A, Bruneau M, Loqa C, Van Cutsem N, Brotchi J: Sterile surgical technique for shunt placement re- duces the shunt infection rate in children: preliminary (...) - impregnated shunt catheters in reducing shunt infection: data from the United Kingdom Shunt Registry. Clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr 4:389–393, 2009 45. Ritz R, Roser F, Morgalla M, Dietz K, Tatagiba M, Will BE: Do antibiotic-impregnated shunts in hydrocephalus therapy reduce the risk of infection? An observational study in 258 patients. B M C I n f e c t D i s 7 :38, 2007 46. Rozzelle CJ, Leonardo J, Li V: Antimicrobial suture wound closure for cerebrospinal fluid shunt surgery: a prospective

2014 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

73. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 6: Preoperative antibiotics for shunt surgery in children with hydrocephalus: a systematic review and meta-analysis

infections in children. Neurosur - ger y 9:6–8, 1981 2. Arnaboldi L: Antimicrobial prophylaxis with ceftriaxone in neurosurgical procedures. A prospective study of 100 patients undergoing shunt operations. C h e mo t h e r a p y 42:384–390, 1996 3. Attenello FJ, Garces-Ambrossi GL, Zaidi HA, Sciubba DM, Jallo GI: Hospital costs associated with shunt infections in pa- tients receiving antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters versus standard shunt catheters. Neu ro s u r g e r y 66:284–289, 2010 4. Barker FG (...) . Bayston R, Bannister C, Boston V, Burman R, Burns B, Cooke F, et al: A prospective randomised controlled trial of antimicrobial prophylaxis in hydrocephalus shunt surgery. Z K i nde r c h i r 45 (Suppl 1):5–7, 1990 9. Biyani N, Grisaru-Soen G, Steinbok P, Sgouros S, Constantini S: Prophylactic antibiotics in pediatric shunt surgery. Childs N e r v S y s t 22:1465–1471, 2006 10. Blomstedt GC: Results of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis in ventriculostomy and shunting procedures. A double-blind

2014 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

74. General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care

General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Guidance Leaflet – General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care | 1 THE ORIGINAL FRENCH VERSION IS THE LEGALLY BINDING TEXT Guidance Leaflet General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care February 2014 Objective The purpose of this guidance leaflet is to avoid inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, a source of selection pressure (...) , which leads to the emergence of bacterial resistance and to therapeutic impasses. Each antibiotic prescription must be cautious, balancing: • the short-term benefits for the patient, the priority if he/she is indeed suffering from a bacterial infection; • the adverse effects for the patient on his/her commensal flora and for bacterial ecology through the selection of multiresistant bacteria. ´ Handwashing with soap or using a hand sanitiser helps to reduce the transmission of microorganisms by hand

2014 HAS Guidelines

75. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Spine Surgery (Revised 2013)

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Spine Surgery (Revised 2013) This clinical guideline should not be construed as including all proper methods of care or excluding or other acceptable methods of care reason- ably directed to obtaining the same results. The ultimate judgment regarding any specific procedure or treatment is to be made by the physi- cian and patient in light of all circumstances presented by the patient and the needs and resources particular to the locality or institution. 1 Introduct Ion (...) /Gu Idel Ine Methodolo Gy Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Spine Surgery | NASS Clinical Guidelines NASS Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines Committee William O. Shaffer, MD Committee Chair Jamie Baisden, MD Robert Fernand, MD Paul Matz, MD Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Spine SurgeryThis clinical guideline should not be construed as including all proper methods of care or excluding or other acceptable methods of care reason- ably directed

2013 North American Spine Society

76. Guidelines from the American Heart Association Regarding Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Infective Endocarditis Associated with Genitourinary Procedures

temporally associated with a GI or GU procedure are anecdotal. ? No published data demonstrate a conclusive link between GI and GU procedures and the development of infective endocarditis. ? No studies exist that demonstrate that the administration of prophylactic antibiotics prevents infective endocarditis in association with GI or GU procedures. ? There has been a dramatic increase in the frequency of antimicrobial resistant strains of enterococci (the only bacteria among the varied flora found (...) Guidelines from the American Heart Association Regarding Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Infective Endocarditis Associated with Genitourinary Procedures Guidelines from the American Heart Association Regarding Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Infective Endocarditis Associated with Genitourinary Procedures April 2012 According to guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA), antibiotic prophylaxis solely to prevent infective endocarditis in patients with valvular heart disease

2012 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

77. Tube Thoracostomy, Presumptive Antibiotics in

showed a reduced risk of infectious complications. Limitations of this study included direct comparisons of different antimicrobial drug classes (aminoglycosides vs. cephalosporins vs. tetracyclines) and published non-English literature. Furthermore, eight of the analyzed studies used nonstandard definitions (or no definition) for the diagnosis of pneumonia and empyema. In the era of emerging resistant organisms, antibiotic prophylaxis is typically limited to 24 hours’ duration and is usually a first (...) Tube Thoracostomy, Presumptive Antibiotics in Tube Thoracostomy, Presumptive Antibiotics in - Practice Management Guideline Search » Tube Thoracostomy, Presumptive Antibiotics in Published 2012 Citation: Authors Moore, Forrest O. MD; Duane, Therese M. MD; Hu, Charles K.C. MD; Fox, Adam D. DO; McQuay, Nathaniel Jr MD; Lieber, Michael L. MS; Como, John J. MD; Haut, Elliott R. MD; Kerwin, Andrew J. MD; Guillamondegui, Oscar D. MD; Burns, J. Bracken DO Author Information From the Division of Trauma

2012 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

78. Penetrating Abdominal Trauma, Prophylactic Antibiotic Use in

of antibiotics with broad-spectrum aerobic and anaerobic coverage was the standard of care for trauma patients sustaining penetrating abdominal wounds. No additional doses of antimicrobials were necessary if there was no bowel injury. A Level II recommendation supported the continuation of antibiotics for only 24 hours when there was a hollow viscus injury. In addition, Level 3 recommendations were made regarding alteration of antibiotic dosing for patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock. A prospective (...) number of anaerobic infections in the cephalothin group (21%) compared with those in the clindamycin group (2%). This landmark article established the basis for the addition of antimicrobial agents that provided coverage of anaerobic organisms, in addition to aerobic organisms, for penetrating wounds of the intestinal tract. Several studies have evaluated various antimicrobial agents regarding the specific pathogens that should be covered. Many of the antibiotics used in the earlier studies

2012 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

79. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the working party of BSAC

Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the working party of BSAC Guidelines for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of endocarditis in adults: a report of the Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy F. Kate Gould 1 *, David W. Denning 2 , Tom S. J. Elliott 3 , Juliet Foweraker 4 , John D. Perry 1 , Bernard D. Prendergast 5 , Jonathan A. T. Sandoe 6 , Michael J. Spry 1 and Richard W. Watkin 7 1 Department (...) to respond to initial antimicrobial therapy and may require a change in therapy. Several treatment options are therefore provided for most scenarios. Guidelines such as these have, in the past, received criticism for not being evidence based. We appreciate that clinical guide- lines should ideally be based on high-quality, prospective, rando- mized controlled trials; however, few such trials have been performed to assess the bene?t of antibiotic regimens in the treatment of endocarditis. Since the last

2012 British Infection Association

80. Infective Endocarditis in Adults: Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications Full Text available with Trip Pro

, mural, infection, diagnosis, bacteremia, case definition, epidemiology, risks, demographics, injection drug use, echocardiography, microbiology, culture-negative, therapy, antibiotic, antifungal, antimicrobial, antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug effects, drug monitoring, outcome, meta-analysis, complications, abscess, heart failure, embolic events, stroke, conduction abnormalities, survival, pathogens, organisms, treatment, surgery, indications, valve replacement, valve repair, ambulatory care (...) cases, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT was useful in identifying peripheral embolization in 11 patients and in detecting IE extracardiac manifestations in 7 patients who did not demonstrate any clinical manifestations of IE. The use of multimodality imaging in IE may increase in the future as the risks and benefits of each diagnostic tool are defined. Antimicrobial Therapy Therapeutic Principles The primary goal of antibiotic treatment is to eradicate infection, including

2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America

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