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61. Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold?Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold?Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents? Intra-Operative Surgical Irrigation of the Surgical Incision: What Does the Future Hold—Saline, Antibiotic Agents, or Antiseptic Agents? | Surgical Infections

62. Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections

Prophylactic antibiotics for children with recurrent urinary tract infections Prophylactic antibiotics for urinary tract infections are no longer routinely recommended. A large number of children must be given prophylaxis to prevent one infection and antibiotic resistance is a major concern when treating community-acquired urinary tract infections. The results of three recent significant studies are examined, with focus on the efficacy of prophylaxis, and recommendations are made. Key Words (...) : Antibiotic resistance; Antibiotic stewardship; Renal scarring; UTI; VUR

2015 Canadian Paediatric Society

63. Sinusitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

Background 5 Recommendations 6 1.1 Managing acute sinusitis 6 1.2 Choice of antibiotic 8 1.3 Self-care 10 Symptoms and signs 12 Common symptoms and signs 12 Factors that might make a bacterial cause more likely 12 Summary of the evidence 13 Self-care 13 Nasal corticosteroids 14 No antibiotic 15 Back-up antibiotics 17 Choice of antibiotic 18 Antibiotic course length 21 Other considerations 23 Medicines adherence 23 Resource implications 23 Sinusitis (acute): antimicrobial prescribing (NG79) © NICE 2019 (...) . All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 24Ov Overview erview This guideline sets out an antimicrobial prescribing strategy for acute sinusitis. It aims to limit antibiotic use and reduce antimicrobial resistance. Acute sinusitis is usually caused by a virus, lasts for about 2 to 3 weeks, and most people get better without antibiotics. Withholding antibiotics rarely leads to complications. See a 2-page visual

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

64. Antimicrobial stewardship: changing risk-related behaviours in the general population

Behavioural strategies and programmes 42 3 High-risk groups 42 4 Workplace 43 5 Older people in day and residential care 43 Antimicrobial stewardship: changing risk-related behaviours in the general population (NG63) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 4 of 44Ov Overview erview This guideline covers making people aware of how to correctly use antimicrobial medicines (including antibiotics) and the dangers (...) section on NHS Choices] or there is a high risk of travellers' diarrhoea). The following recommendations are for local authority public health teams. 1.2.4 Consider linking to awareness-raising initiatives for the public on reducing inappropriate antimicrobial demand and use and antimicrobial resistance (for example, European Antibiotic Awareness Day and Public Health England's Antibiotic Guardian). 1.2.5 Use opportunities that may arise through other local authority activities to distribute

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

65. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Surgery

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Breast Surgery IntroductIon In the UK, there is no consensus on antibiotic prophylaxis in breast surgery. There is variability amongst breast units in the use of, choice and duration of prophylaxis for breast surgery procedures. Trust level guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis are often derived from general surgery operations. Often no specific consideration is given to breast surgery procedures, which are thought of as “clean surgery” . However the implications (...) of surgical site infections (SSI) in this cohort including delay to the commencement of adjuvant treatments and loss of implants are potentially serious. The incidence of SSIs for breast cancer procedures ranges between 3-15% 3 with women having immediate breast reconstruction at even higher risk of SSI 3 exceeding 20% 4 . This document attempts to balance the trade off between the increased risk of antibiotic resistance for the general population and the increased risks of Clostridium Difficile infection

2015 Association of Breast Surgery

66. Preterm Labour, Antibiotics and Cerebral Palsy

Preterm Labour, Antibiotics and Cerebral Palsy Preterm Labour, Antibiotics, and Cerebral Palsy Scientific Impact Paper No. 33 February 2013Preterm Labour, Antibiotics, and Cerebral Palsy 1. Introduction The rate of preterm birth (pregnancy under 37 +0 weeks of gestation) is 5–9% of all births in Europe, and 12–13% in the United States of America (USA); the rates in both continents increased up to 2008, partly due to the higher number of multiple births associated with assisted conceptions. 1 (...) , emotional and stressful times of their lives, 3 regardless of the longer term outcome. The sequelae of preterm birth also pose significant challenges. Children born preterm are at increased risk of major disabilities such as cerebral palsy. The risk of cerebal palsy increases as gestation at birth decreases. 4 Many children who were born preterm without disability develop significant behavioural and educational difficulties. 5 This paper will examine the evidence for: ? Prescribing antibiotics

2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

67. 2018 IDSA Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy

to either remain in hospital for IV antibiotic therapy or forgo IV antimicrobial treatment [42–45]. Methodology Panel Composition The last version of the IDSA OPAT Guideline was published in 2004 [1]. For the current update, 1 of the chairs assembled 11 ID physicians from both academic and private practice settings, including 3 pediatric ID physicians who are members of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. Also included were an experienced ID pharmacist, a member of the Infusion Nursing Society (...) to SNFs, sending patients home without a VAD but bringing them to an outpatient facility for each antimicrobial administration, or keeping them in hospital for the duration of their parenteral antibiotic treatment course. It should be noted that there are no data to suggest that the risk of device misuse is any lower in SNFs, where patients have ample opportunity for illicit drug administration. Confirmation about whether PWID are at higher risk of vascular access complications during OPAT and, if so

2018 Infectious Diseases Society of America

71. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis for Adult Patients with Cancer-Related Immunosuppression

adverse effects, as well as concerns with antimicrobial resistance, cost considerations, and the physiologic importance to the host of maintaining equilibrium in the diversity and density of the host microbiome, the decision to administer prophylaxis requires balancing benefits and harms. The previous version of this guideline recommended antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis for higher-risk patients and that there was not a high enough baseline risk of FN and infection-related mortality in lower (...) contained within this guideline can be found in the Bottom Line box. GUIDELINE QUESTIONS Section: This clinical practice guideline addresses the following clinical questions: Does antibacterial prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone, compared with placebo, no intervention, or another class of antibiotic reduce the incidence of and mortality related to FN? Does antifungal (antiyeast or antimold) prophylaxis with an oral triazole or parenteral echinocandin, compared with no prophylaxis or another treatment

2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

72. Executive summary of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Domiciliary Hospitalisation Society

(OPAT) programmes make it possible to start or complete intravenous antimicrobial therapy for practically any type of infection at home, provided that patient selection is appropriate for the type of OPAT programme available. Although the clinical management of infections in the home setting is comparable in many respects to that offered in conventional hospitalization (selection of antibiotics, duration of treatment, etc.), there are many aspects that are specific to this care modality (...) Executive summary of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Domiciliary Hospitalisation Society Executive summary of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Domiciliary Hospitalisation Society - PubMed This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Please enable it to take advantage

2019 Spanish Clinical Guidelines

73. Neonatal infection: antibiotics for prevention and treatment

Neonatal infection: antibiotics for prevention and treatment Neonatal infection ( Neonatal infection (early onset): early onset): antibiotics for pre antibiotics for prev vention and treatment ention and treatment Clinical guideline Published: 22 August 2012 nice.org.uk/guidance/cg149 © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline (...) inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. Neonatal infection (early onset): antibiotics for prevention and treatment (CG149) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https

2012 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

74. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Oral Surgery for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection

by antimicrobial resistance 6, level III and new antibiotic discovery is not keeping pace with the rates of this antimicrobial resistance. 7, level III Also, an antibiotic administered to a patient can act as an antigenic stimulus and hence produce an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions manifest either locally or systemically at varying degrees of severity ranging from minor skin lesions to anaphylactic shock and death. Antibiotics in general should be used only when the benefits outweigh the risks (...) Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Oral Surgery for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection i TABLE OF CONTENTS GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT AND OBJECTIVES CLINICAL QUESTIONS TARGET POPULATION, TARGET GROUP HEALTHCARE SETTINGS LEVELS OF EVIDENCE AND GRADES OF RECOMMENDATIONS MEMBERS OF THE GUIDELINE DEVELOPMENT GROUP MEMBERS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2.0 INDICATIONS FOR PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS 2.1 Patients with underlying medical problems 2.2 Clean surgery 2.3 Clean-contaminated surgery 2.3.1

2015 Ministry of Health, Malaysia

75. Antibiotic prophylaxis for GI endoscopy

of the GI tract (such as cholangitis) and for those who receive antibiotic therapy to prevent wound infection or sepsis associated with a GI tract procedure, it is recommended that the antibiotic regimen include an antimicrobial agent active against enterococci, such as penicillin, ampicillin, piperacillin, or vancomycin.44BB Prosthetic cardiac valve History of IE Cardiac transplant recipients who develop cardiac valvulopathy Patients with CHD Unrepaired cyanotic CHD including palliative shunts (...) , gram-negative bacteria, or other microorganisms associated with implantation of the graft or resulting from wound or other active infections. The AHA does not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis after vascular graft or other nonvalvular cardiovascular device placement for patients who undergo GI endoscopic procedures. The AHA recently stated that antimicrobial prophylaxis is not recommended for any endoscopic procedures in patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices. 75 Endoscopy

2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

76. Use of Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Dental Patients

by the Council on Clinical Affairs and adopted in 2001. This document is a revision of the previous version, last revised in 2009. The revision was based upon a new systematic literature search of the PubMed ® /MEDLINE database using the terms: antibiotic therapy, antibacterial agents, antimicrobial agents, dental trauma, oral wound man- agement, orofacial infections, periodontal disease, viral disease, and oral contraception; fields: all; limits: within the last 10 years, humans, English, clinical trials (...) of systemic involvement (i.e., fever, asymmetry, facial swelling) warrant emergency treatment. Intravenous antibiotic therapy and/or referral for medical management may be indicated. 9-11 Penicillin remains the empirical choice for odontogenic infections; however, consideration of additional adjunctive antimicrobial therapy (i.e., metronidazole) can be given where there is anaerobic bacterial involvement. 8 Dental trauma Systemic antibiotics have been recommended as adjunc- tive therapy for avulsed

2014 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

77. Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients at Risk for Infection

, Wilson W, et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis: Recommendations by the American Heart Association. JAMA 1997;227(22): 1794-801. 9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/ Antimicrobial resistance. About antimicrobial resistance: A brief overview. Available at: “http://www.cdc.gov/drug resistance/about.html”. Accessed August 20, 2014. AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES 391 10. Lockhart PB, Loven B, Brennan MT, Baddour LM, Levinson M (...) Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Dental Patients at Risk for Infection 386 RECOMMENDATIONS: BEST PRACTICES REFERENCE MANUAL V 40 / NO 6 18 / 19 Purpose The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ( AAPD) recognizes that numerous medical conditions predispose pa- tients to bacteremia-induced infections. Because it is not possible to predict when a susceptible patient will develop an infection, prophylactic antibiotics are recommended when these patients undergo procedures that are at risk for produc

2014 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

78. General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care

General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Haute Autorité de Santé - General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Fermer Choose language Accessibility Change contrast : Standards Reinforced icone Chercher icone plus Chercher My account My account Please fill in your email address to retrieve your email alerts subscriptions. Please fill in your email address to retrieve your newsletter subscriptions. You do not have (...) principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Practice guidelines - Posted on Feb 24 2014 The purpose of this guidance leaflet is to avoid inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, a source of selection pressure, which leads to the emergence of bacterial resistance and to therapeutic impasses. Each antibiotic prescription must be cautious, balancing : the short-term benefits for the patient, the priority if he/she is indeed suffering from a bacterial infection; the adverse

2014 HAS Guidelines

79. ASCIA Clinical Update - Antibiotic Allergy

allergy. The problem becomes even more complicated when the patient is taking more than one drug. Antibiotic hypersensitivity is usually diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, especially the timing of the reaction after antimicrobial use. If the patient reports an allergy, specific details about the nature of the reaction, the timing, concurrent illnesses and drugs, and the outcome should be sought, documented and provided to the clinical immunology/allergy specialist. 3.2 Skin and blood testing (...) ASCIA Clinical Update - Antibiotic Allergy Disclaimer: ASCIA information is reviewed by ASCIA members and represents the available published literature at the time of review. The content of this document is not intended to replace professional medical advice and any questions regarding a medical diagnosis or treatment should be directed to a medical practitioner. © ASCIA 2014 Antibiotic Allergy Clinical Update This Clinical Update has been adapted, with permission, from the allergy section

2014 Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy

80. General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care

General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care Guidance Leaflet – General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care | 1 THE ORIGINAL FRENCH VERSION IS THE LEGALLY BINDING TEXT Guidance Leaflet General principles and prescription recommendations for antibiotics in primary care February 2014 Objective The purpose of this guidance leaflet is to avoid inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, a source of selection pressure (...) , which leads to the emergence of bacterial resistance and to therapeutic impasses. Each antibiotic prescription must be cautious, balancing: • the short-term benefits for the patient, the priority if he/she is indeed suffering from a bacterial infection; • the adverse effects for the patient on his/her commensal flora and for bacterial ecology through the selection of multiresistant bacteria. ´ Handwashing with soap or using a hand sanitiser helps to reduce the transmission of microorganisms by hand

2014 HAS Guidelines

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