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2001. Guidelines for the Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Children in the United Kingdom

, Daum F, Fisher SE et al. Peripheral neuropathy in Crohn’s disease patients treated with metronidazole. Gastroenterology 1985; 88: 681–4. [44] Sartor RB. Antibiotics as therapeutic agents in Crohn’s disease. In: Bayless TM, Hanauer SB eds. Advanced Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Lewiston, NY: BC Decker, 2001: 359–62. [45] Singleton J. Second trial of mesalamine therapy in the treatment of active Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 1994;107:632–3. [46] Barden L, Lipson A, Pert P et al

2008 British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition

2002. Guideline to Regulations for Radiopharmaceuticals in Early Phase Clinical Trials in the EU

materials present in a radiopharmaceutical preparation as excipients (solvents, buffers, stabilisers, additives, antimicrobial agents, …) must be of pharma- copoeial quality (as indicated on the label), or be accompanied by a certificate of analysis, or be analysed using validated methods and in accordance with national regulations. Requirements for radiopharmaceuticals in early phase clinical trials Radiopharmaceuticals can be used for different purposes in early phase clinical trials. They may be used

2008 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

2003. Helicobacter pylori. The latest in diagnosis and treatment

attempts – 10 or 14 days treatment may have a higher chance of success. However, the risk of adverse effects increases • After two failed eradication attempts, current guidelines advocate antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Culture should be performed in specialised laboratories, as the procedure is technically demanding. Several studies have shown that higher eradication rates are obtained when antibiotics are chosen based on susceptibility testing, and this seems to be a cost effective approach • T (...) based therapy, bismuth based quadruple therapy is the favoured second line therapy. Preparing the patient for possible side effects is important as poor compliance and antibiotic resistance are the main reasons for eradication failure. helicobacter pylori The latest in diagnosis and treatment Barry marshall FRACP , FAA, FRS, Nobel Laureate, is Clinical Professor of Microbiology, The University of Western Australia. Aruni mendis PhD, DIC, is Manager, Scientific & Regulatory Affairs, Tri-Med Australia

2008 The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

2004. Cholesteatoma - diagnosing the unsafe ear

to toxins or direct invasion. Water within the ear can precipitate an acute infection of the cholesteatoma and results in otorrhea. In any patient with otitis media that fails to settle with appropriate antibiotic treatment, a cholesteatoma should be suspected. A cholesteatoma is rarely associated with pain. Pain however reflects extensive disease with the possibility of intracranial invasion and dural irritation. 7 Vertigo is also associated with an extensive cholesteatoma and requires urgent attention (...) nerve. Antibiotic-steroid eardrops can be instilled on a daily basis over 1 week to treat any polyp occluding the ear canal and obstructing the view of the underlying tympanic membrane. If a cholesteatoma is suspected the patient’s facial nerve should be examined. The patient should also be examined for dizziness using the fistula test. A fistula test involves applying positive pressure to the affected ear. It can be performed by placing a finger to the external auditory meatus and creating

2008 The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

2005. Ocular Emergencies

not specific to a penetrating injury, hyphaema and dislocation of the natural lens may also be seen. It is imperative that the eye is not touched or manipulated. If the object is present it should be left in situ as its removal may cause further herniation of the eye contents. Topical anaesthetic and antibiotics can be given to aid comfort and reduce the risk of infection. Nausea or vomiting should be suppressed with the use of antiemetics as violent head movements can aggravate the condition. 2,4 Tetanus

2008 The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

2006. Vertigo part 2 - management in general practice

(125 mg) is given and the dosage is slowly tapered down over 18 days. Antiviral medication has not been shown to be of any benefit. 13 In patients with suppurative labyrinthitis, usually following a bacterial otitis media infection, hospitalisation with intravenous antibiotic treatment is required. Early mobilisation as tolerated in a safe environment will encourage the brainstem compensatory mechanism. Vestibular rehabilitation exercises can also be introduced to allow a more rapid and complete

2008 The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

2007. The use of fluoride in infants and children

) and has not been evaluated in infants and toddlers (evidence level II-3, recommendation C) . Some individuals may be susceptible to ‘carious challenge’. Because of either a genetic or an environmental predisposition to a high prevalence of caries - , topical fluorides alone may be insufficient to prevent caries among these individuals (ie, additional fluoride may produce no net benefit and other measures such as antibacterial therapy and diet changes may be required) (evidence level II-3

2002 Canadian Paediatric Society

2012. Summary of clinical standards for acquired syphilis in HIV-positive patients

. Erythromycin is not recommended because of poor CSF penetration. Need for lumbar puncture • All HIV-infected patients with positive syphilis serology must have a full documented neurological examination. If neurological symptoms or signs are present, a head scan and lumbar puncture is required to exclude other HIV related conditions. Asymptomatic HIV positive patients do not require a lumbar puncture unless they are going to be treated with a course of antibiotics where there is uncertainty about whether

2002 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

2013. Management of donovanosis

. Management All patients with active lesions shown to contain Donovan bodies should receive antimicrobial treatment. Patients from areas endemic for donovanosis with a clinical diagnosis of the disease should be given presumptive treatment. Treatment options are presented in table 1, which lists drugs shown to be effective in the treatment of donovanosis in prospective studies. Drugs have been selected on the basis of current availability, lack of major toxicity, and convenient dosage regimens. Older (...) hours IM/IV £32.34 C III Maddocks [21] *Costs from British National Formulary Number 40 (September 2000 †Currently recommended by CDC. Notes on table 1 • Azithromycin is recommended for donovanosis in the Australian Antibiotic Guidelines. • CDC recommends ciprofloxacin which has better bioavailability than norfloxacin. • Gentamicin recommended by CDC as an adjunct to therapy in patients whose lesions do not respond in the first few days to other agents. • Doxycycline has not been individually

2001 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

2014. Standards for comprehensive sexual health services for young people under 25 years

by having access to direct microscopy, with plating for culture as con?rmation. Screening for N. gonorrhoeae by DNA ampli?cation methods is acceptable with referral to GUM services for con?rmation and antibiotic sensi- tivity testing. . Screening for C. trachomatis normally by DNA ampli?cation methods. 422 International Journal of STD & AIDS Volume 13 June 2002. Non-invasive tests for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis to encourage screening and for those declining genital examination. . Hepatitis B

2002 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

2015. Clinical standards & management of acquired syphilis in HIV-positive patients

puncture MINIMUM STANDARD: All HIV-infected patients with positive syphilis serology must have a full documented neurological examination. If neurological symptoms or signs are present, a head scan and lumbar puncture is required to exclude other HIV related conditions. Asymptomatic HIV positive patients do not require a lumbar puncture unless they are going to be treated with a course of antibiotics where there is uncertainty about whether CSF treponemicidal levels will be achieved. Procaine

2002 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

2016. Management of adult victims of sexual assault

) is often difficult to implement in a hospital laboratory situation. (IV, C) see acknowledgements Treatment • Antibiotic Prophylaxis In situations where the patient may default, is unable to tolerate the distress of a repeat examination or requires an IUCD for emergency contraception then prophylactic treatment that would cover both chlamydia and gonorrhoea may be offered. Recommended Regimens (IV, C - UK National Guidelines- clinical effectiveness group). -: Ciprofloxacin 500mg stat, Doxycycline 100mg (...) BD seven days or Ciprofloxacin 500mg stat and Azithromycin 1g stat. Pregnancy or Breastfeeding - Amoxycillin 3g stat + probenecid 1g stat and Erythromycin 500mg BD 14 days The efficacy of antibiotic regimes in preventing gonorrhoea or chlamydia infections after sexual assault has not been studied (11). Many patients prefer prophylactic therapy to repeat examination (3). They should abstain from sexual intercourse until treatment has been completed. • Hepatitis B vaccine ( IV, C) see refs. below

2001 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

2017. Guidelines for treatment of onychomycosis

with the addition of an antibiotic. The culture plate is incubated at 28 C for at least 3 weeks before it is declared negative, as dermatophytes tend to grow slowly. Direct microscopy can be carried out by the clinician, and higher specialist training includes teaching of this technique. However, nail microscopy is dif?cult and should only be carried out by those who do it on a regular basis. Fungal culture should always be carried out in a laboratory experienced in handling mycology specimens, because (...) . They require to be applied until the integrity of the cuticle has been restored, which may be several months. An imidazole lotion alternating with an antibacterial lotion is usually effective. GUIDELINES FOR TREATMENT OF ONYCHOMYCOSIS 407 2003 British Association of Dermatologists, British Journal of Dermatology, 148, 402–410Itraconazole (Sporonox ) is the most effective agent for the treatment of candidal onychomycosis where the nail plate is invaded by the organism. 34 It is used in the same dosage

2003 British Association of Dermatologists

2019. Bone Scintigraphy

files of previous examinations) – Results of other imaging studies such as conventional radiography, CT, MRI (as with previous scintigraphic examinations, it is recommended that every effort be made to obtain hard copies or computer files of previ- ous examinations) – History of therapy that could affect bone scintigraphy (e.g. antibiotics, steroids, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, diphosphonates, iron therapy) BP100 European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Vol. 30, No. 1, January

2003 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

2020. Guidelines for Direct Radionuclide Cystography in Children

a negative examination cannot totally exclude VUR. III Common Indications Indications Direct radionuclide cystography is indicated whenever detection of VUR is important. Main clinical indications are: A. Detection of VUR in children after UTI (in boys the first catheter cystogram should be an MCU to visualise the urethra). B. Follow up of children with known VUR during prophylactic antibiotic/bacteriostatic treatment C. Assessment of the results of endoscopic or surgical treatment. D. Screening (...) be used for the catheterization. The risk of catheter induced infection is very small, approximately 0,2% (34) . Nevertheless, since kidneys in children are more vulnerable to infection, every child undergoing bladder catheterization should receive a prophylactic antibiotic. Usually a single dose of a peroral antibiotic, different from the one the child may already have, is sufficient. In case of3 severe reflux a full intravenous treatment may be necessary. The catheter prophylaxis should follow local

2002 European Association of Nuclear Medicine


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