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Assessment of Physical Function

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141. Optimal Lung Function Tests for Monitoring Cystic Fibrosis, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, and Recurrent Wheezing in Children Less Than 6 Years of Age: An Official ATS Workshop Report

assessments play a limited role in the care of infants and children under 6 years of age, due to the challenges of measuring lung function in these young patients. A number of lung function techniques have been developed and evaluated among children under 6 years of age in the research setting, and show promise as safe, feasible, and potentially useful clinical tests. These proceedings re?ect the results of of?cial American Thoracic Society (ATS) workshops convened by the ATS/European Respiratory Society (...) . This belief is based upon the observation that lung function assessments are central to the clinical care of older children with CF. B In infants and young children with CF, BPD, or recurrent wheeze, lung function monitoring may be valuable to address speci?c concerns, such as ongoing symptoms or monitoring response to treatment, and as objective outcome measures in clinical research studies. A summary of the current strengths and weaknesses of these lung function tests is provided in the summary table

2013 American Thoracic Society

142. Cardiovascular Function and Treatment in ß-Thalassemia Major Full Text available with Trip Pro

by cardiac T2* magnetic resonance. Cardiac T2* <10 ms is the most important predictor of development of heart failure. Serum ferritin and liver iron concentration are not adequate surrogates for cardiac iron measurement. Assessment of cardiac function by noninvasive techniques can also be valuable clinically, but serial measurements to establish trends are usually required because interpretation of single absolute values is complicated by the abnormal cardiovascular hemodynamics in TM and measurement (...) document is that cardiac disease is easier and safer to treat at an early stage rather than a late stage when the hazard of death is high. We build on previous, more focused summary reviews and consensus statements on the heart in TM and build a consensus of the assessment of cardiac function and treatment of HF in TM. 2. Fundamentals of TM and the Heart 2.1 Iron-Loading Conditions 2.1.1 β-Thalassemia Major TM is a genetic condition with severe reduction or absent production of the β-globin chain

2013 American Heart Association

143. Impact of Hypertension on Cognitive Function: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

mortality over the past several decades has been attributed to the treatment of hypertension. , Surprisingly, however, the impact of hypertension and its treatment on cognitive impairment has been more difficult to assess, and several key questions remain to be answered. Considering the growing public health import of dementia, a critical appraisal of current knowledge of the cognitive function associated with hypertension is warranted. Although the role of vascular risk factors in cognitive impairment (...) the development, timing, and evaluation of pharmacological and behavioral interventions, for example, disease self-management and medication adherence. Cognitive function is assessed in studies of hypertension with a number of measures. The most common measures administered in these studies assess the specific domains of memory, executive function, and processing speed. Memory Memory function includes tests of short-term memory, verbal learning, and working memory. Common short-term memory tasks include

2016 American Heart Association

144. Mitochondrial Function, Biology, and Role in Disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

is not the main driver of mitochondrial protein turnover. In fact, it is suggested that the dynamics of protein turnover can provide an assessment of the physiological state. Alterations in these mitochondrial functions are important in many cardiac diseases, as discussed in the section on Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Disease. The section on Mitochondrial Myopathies: Mitochondrial Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy examines the mitochondrial pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy, and the section on Cardiotoxicity (...) discusses the role of mitochondria in cardiotoxicity. The section on Biomarkers discusses potential biomarkers for mitochondrial diseases. Taken together, this American Heart Association scientific statement provides a state-of-the-art assessment of the current status of basic mitochondrial biology and how alterations in mitochondria can be major contributors to complex cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondrial Function Generation of ATP: Bioenergetics and Metabolism Energy Demands of the Heart

2016 American Heart Association

145. Evaluation and Treatment of Functional Constipation in Infants and Children: Evidence-Based Recommendations from ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN

at 3weeksforthe3groups.Becauseofthemissingdatasuchasmeans with SD, a GRADE evidence profile could not be performed. In conclusion, evidence does not support the use of extra fluid intake in the treatment of functional constipation. 6.3 Physical Activity (Fig. 2, Box 9 ‘‘Education’’) There are no randomized studies that evaluate the effect of increased physical activity in childhood constipation. 6.4 Prebiotics 6.5 Probiotics The present search identified 153 studies, including 4 sys- tematicreviews(9,56,57,64).Tabbersetal(9)performedaGRADE assessment (...) on the fact that defecation problems in infants 2 weeks old Functional constipation Treatment effective? Treatment effective? Maintenance therapy Relapse? Relapse? Improve treatment Has previous treatment been sufficient? Refer Treatment effective? Condition Question Action Treatment effective? Treatment:  Education  Diet: verify proper formula preparation  Diary  Start oral medication  Occasional suppository  Re-assessment  Adherence?  Re-education  Wean  Observe Probably normal Evaluation

2014 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

146. Prioritizing Functional Capacity as a Principal End Point for Therapies Oriented to Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease

and efficiency. Determinants of Physical Function in Older Adults: Impact of Age and Disease Cardiorespiratory Fitness The primary metric of functional capacity is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), usually assessed as peak oxygen uptake (V o 2 ). Cardiovascular and pulmonary physiological components are key determinants of V o 2 and usually predominate in younger adults, but vascular, skeletal muscle, autonomic, hematologic, and other physiological mechanisms are also contributory and often factor relatively (...) and clinical venues. Whereas CRF measured by CPET or exercise tolerance test (ETT) is often used in younger individuals, the utility of CPET and ETT for older adults is often complicated by weakness and other limitations, although these tests may still be feasible when appropriate protocols and modes are used. Physical performance domains are also interdependent; assessments of multiple domains can often help clarify functional limitations and then can be applied together as integrated bases of management

2017 American Heart Association

147. Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty - Lisa E. Ishii, Travis T. Tollefson, Gregory J. Basura, Richard M. Rosenfeld, Peter J. Abramson, Scott R. Chaiet, Kara S. Davis, Karl Doghramji, Edward H. Farrior, Sandra A. Finestone, Stacey L. Ishman, Robert X. Murphy, John G. Park, Michael Setzen, Deborah J. Strike, Sandra A. Walsh, Jeremy P. Warner, Lorraine C. Nnacheta, 2017 MENU IN THIS JOURNAL Sign (...) and conditions Share URL copied to clipboard View permissions information for this article Clinical Practice Guideline: Improving Nasal Form and Function after Rhinoplasty .entryAuthor" data-author-container-selector=".NLM_contrib-group"> Show all authors , MD, MHS 1 1Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA by this author for this author , , MD, MPH 2 2University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA by this author

2017 American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

148. Laboratory investigation of heritable disorders of platelet function

drugs and/or detecting platelet hyperfunction will not be discussed in these guidelines. An evaluation of patients with abnormal bleeding requires objective clinical assessment of bleeding history, any family history and physical examination followed, when appropriate, by laboratory investigations. During this process it is essential to recognize that numerical and/or functional platelet disorders are prevalent amongst patients with abnormal bleeding and may be clinically indistinguishable from (...) on the utility and practice of using the PFA‐100 for clinical assessment of platelet disorders have been provided by various international and national organizations ( ; ; ). It is reasonable to use normal PFA closure times to rule out a significant platelet defect in patients who have a low clinical suspicion of such a defect, however if the clinical suspicion of a platelet defect is high, then a normal PFA result should not be used to rule out this possibility and specific assays of platelet function

2011 British Committee for Standards in Haematology

149. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

and gated perfusion imaging 4. Right ventricular ejection fraction 5. Left ventricular ejection fraction 6. Left ventricular volumes 7. Left ventricular regional function 8. Left ventricular diastolic function 9. Physics and software 10. Reference values 11. Report and image display 1. Clinical indications Introduction Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes is important for prognostification, being very powerful predic- tors of long-term outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI (...) ) [1, 2]. The information obtained to that obtained by ungated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) by the addition of gating has been demonstrated in several studies to be of high clinical value. The assessment of the function of the right ventricle (RV) is recognised to be important in subgroups of patients including arrhyhmogenic RV, in lung transplant candidates, and after MI, possibly including RV infarction, with high prognostic value of demonstrating RV dysfunction. Determination

2008 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

150. Aided Language Stimulation Leading to Functional Communication Gains in Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication

: Naturalistic observations/data on elicited expressive communication occasioned by teacher instructions in school settings. Instrument Validity: N/A Spontaneous communication, play behaviors, social interaction, and teachers’ responses to communicative behaviors. N/A N/A Almost all teachers successfully elicited their students’ expressive communication. A combination of verbal prompt and modeling was positively associated with the occurrence of requesting function and aided AAC communication form. Physical (...) Aided Language Stimulation Leading to Functional Communication Gains in Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication Best Evidence Statement (BESt 211) Copyright © 2018 Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; all rights reserved Page 1 of 15 October 1, 2018 Aided Language Stimulation Leading to Functional Communication Gains in Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND Limited consistent research exists on forms of intervention

2018 Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

151. Immunoglobulin infusions: intravenous and subcutaneous

the risk of exposure to acquired infection such as hepatitis C virus ( ). Procedure (i) Information and consent A risk assessment should be carried out to ensure the family understand the need for treatment and how it is administered ( ) ( ). The benefits of treatment should always outweigh the potential risk of infections from Ig ( ). It can be given by one of two routes: Intravenous - for use in immunomodulation and for giving higher doses of IgG and for some children/young people on long-term (...) . Serum, 1ml) ( ). Serum and plasma for long term storage (Store Ig. Serum, 1ml and Clotted sample, 1ml) ( ). Liver function tests (Lithium Heparin, 0.5ml) ( ). Hepatitis C screen/PCR (serum 5ml) ( ). Full blood count (EDTA, 0.5ml). Other investigations as indicated. Check the product, dose, batch number and expiry date ( ). Check the product integrity (intact seals) and quality (clarity and colour of product according to Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) for individual product) Record

2017 Publication 1593

152. Peripheral venous cannulation of children

guideline ( ). Any training should acknowledge that the physical act of inserting a cannula into the child’s vein is only a part of this procedure. Training should incorporate the sequence of events and psychological considerations ( )( ). Once the essential skills have been taught, the trainee must have opportunities to practise cannulation as soon and as frequently as possible ( )( ). The newly trained HCP should continue to make themselves aware of developments in practice, research and available (...) products. Every HCP must undertake a yearly update to demonstrate competency and fulfill professional development requirements. This is assessed through an e-learning pack and practical assessment. M edical staff should have their competency assessed and documented during their general paediatric training. If no assessment was undertaken or they feel an update is required the practice educator in their clinical area can arrange this. Planning and preparation – child and family Explain the entire

2017 Publication 1593

153. Nutrition: parenteral

on their centile chart ( ). The child must be weighed completely unclothed and according to the clinical guidelines and ( . The urinary electrolytes (sodium and potassium) should be recorded ( ). Nutrition blood samples should be taken according to the relevant monitoring form. These samples should include copper, zinc, selenium, ( ) The child should be assessed to see if there is a risk of refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome is the metabolic and physiological consequences of the depletion, repletion (...) ( . Immediately prior to starting PN, the following observations of the child should be recorded ( : • temperature • heart rate • respiratory rate • blood pressure The prescription and child’s identity should be checked by two registered nurses in line with the medicine administration policy before connection ( . Using an aseptic non-touch technique ( : • Prepare and assess the child’s CVC according to the relevant clinical procedure guidelines (Rationales 15 and 49). (long term) - Clinical guidelines

2015 Publication 1593

154. Nutrition: parenteral

on their centile chart ( ). The child must be weighed completely unclothed and according to the clinical guidelines and ( . The urinary electrolytes (sodium and potassium) should be recorded ( ). Nutrition blood samples should be taken according to the relevant monitoring form. These samples should include copper, zinc, selenium, ( ) The child should be assessed to see if there is a risk of refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome is the metabolic and physiological consequences of the depletion, repletion (...) ( . Immediately prior to starting PN, the following observations of the child should be recorded ( : • temperature • heart rate • respiratory rate • blood pressure The prescription and child’s identity should be checked by two registered nurses in line with the medicine administration policy before connection ( . Using an aseptic non-touch technique ( : • Prepare and assess the child’s CVC according to the relevant clinical procedure guidelines (Rationales 15 and 49). (long term) - Clinical guidelines

2015 Publication 1593

155. Peripheral venous cannulation of children

guideline ( ). Any training should acknowledge that the physical act of inserting a cannula into the child’s vein is only a part of this procedure. Training should incorporate the sequence of events and psychological considerations ( )( ). Once the essential skills have been taught, the trainee must have opportunities to practise cannulation as soon and as frequently as possible ( )( ). The newly trained HCP should continue to make themselves aware of developments in practice, research and available (...) products. Every HCP must undertake a yearly update to demonstrate competency and fulfill professional development requirements. This is assessed through an e-learning pack and practical assessment. M edical staff should have their competency assessed and documented during their general paediatric training. If no assessment was undertaken or they feel an update is required the practice educator in their clinical area can arrange this. Planning and preparation – child and family Explain the entire

2014 Publication 1593

156. Liver biopsy

Liver biopsy Liver biopsy | Great Ormond Street Hospital Google Tag Manager Navigation Search Search You are here Liver biopsy Liver biopsy ). The potential benefit of knowing what the liver looks like under the microscope (or how it functions biochemically or whether it is the site of infection) is that this will lead to specific, effective treatment or at least define the likely disease outcome. This benefit should be continually re-evaluated as alternative diagnostic tests (eg DNA analysis (...) ) become available and also as new treatment options become available, such as has occurred with the new antiviral therapies in viral hepatitis and in liver transplantation. Background Indications for liver biopsy Liver biopsy (in combination with the patient’s clinical history, physical examination and data from imaging and laboratory tests) is a powerful clinical tool for diagnosing, treating and monitoring liver disease. At GOSH, all liver biopsies are performed by the Interventional Radiology (IR

2014 Publication 1593

157. End of life care for infants, children and young people with life-limiting conditions: planning and management

to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, to advance equality of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. End of life care for infants, children (...) 1.3.20 Involve the specialist paediatric palliative care team if a child or young person has unresolved distressing symptoms as they approach the end of life (see recommendation 1.5.4 for who should be in this team). Managing pain Managing pain 1.3.21 When assessing and managing pain, be aware that various factors can contribute to it, including: biological factors, for example musculoskeletal disorders or constipation environmental factors, such as an uncomfortable or noisy care setting

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

158. HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV (Joint NICE and Public Health England guideline)

of opportunity and to reduce health inequalities. Nothing in this guideline should be interpreted in a way that would be inconsistent with complying with those duties. Commissioners and providers have a responsibility to promote an environmentally sustainable health and care system and should assess and reduce the environmental impact of implementing NICE recommendations wherever possible. HIV testing: increasing uptake among people who may have undiagnosed HIV (NG60) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved (...) ] 1.1.11 Offer and recommend repeat testing to the people in recommendations 1.1.8 to 1.1.9 in line with recommendation 1.2.6. [new 2016] [new 2016] 1.1.12 If a venous blood sample is declined, offer a less invasive form of specimen collection, such as a mouth swab or finger-prick. [2011, amended 2016] [2011, amended 2016] Prisons Prisons 1.1.13 At reception, recommend HIV testing to everyone who has not previously been diagnosed with HIV. For more information see the NICE guideline on physical health

2016 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

159. Gastric Cancer

, diagnosis should be made from a gastroscopic or surgical biopsy reviewed by an experienced pathologist, and histology should be reported accordingtotheWHOcriteria[IV,C]. stagingandriskassessment Recommendation: Initial staging and risk assessment should include physical examination, blood count and differential, liver and renal function tests, endoscopy and contrast-enhanced com- puted tomography (CT) scan of the thorax, abdomen±pelvis (Table 1) [V, A]. Laparoscopy is recommended for patients (...) Jegher’s syndrome [5,6]. Ifafamilial cancer syndromesuch as HDGCis suspected, referral to a geneticist for assessment is recom- mendedbasedoninternationalclinicalguidelines[V,B][7]. diagnosisandpathology Recommendation: Diagnosis should be made from a gastroscopic or surgical biopsy reviewed by an experienced pathologist, and histology should be reported according to the World Health Organisation(WHO) criteria [IV,C]. Patients in Asian countries are frequently diagnosed with gastric cancer

2017 European Society for Medical Oncology

160. Newly Diagnosed and Relapsed Follicular Lymphoma

.PublishedbyOxfordUniversityPressonbehalfoftheEuropeanSocietyforMedicalOncology. Allrightsreserved.Forpermissions,pleaseemail:journals.permissions@oup.com.prognostic assessment and are not yet suitable for clinical deci- sion-making [9]. If possible, additional biopsy material should bestoredfreshfrozentoallowforthepossiblefutureapplication ofadditionalmolecularanalyses. treatment ?rstline stage I–II. In the small proportion of patients with limited non-bulkystagesI–II, radiotherapy (involved?eld, 24 Gy)isthe preferred treatment with a potentially curative potential (...) displayinghistologicallymoreaggressivefeatures[41]. follow-upandlong-termimplicationsand survivorship The following minimal recommendations are based on consen- susratherthanonevidence(Table7): ? After local radiotherapy: history and physical examination every 6 months for 2 years, subsequentlyonce ayear if clinic- allyindicated. ? After (during continuous) systemic treatment: historyand phys- ical examination every 3–4 months for 2 years, every 6 months for3additionalyears,andsubsequentlyonceayear[V,D]. ? Blood count and routine

2017 European Society for Medical Oncology

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