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1. Silver-impregnated, antibiotic-impregnated or non-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts to prevent shunt infection: the BASICS three-arm RCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

Silver-impregnated, antibiotic-impregnated or non-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts to prevent shunt infection: the BASICS three-arm RCT Silver-impregnated, antibiotic-impregnated or non-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts to prevent shunt infection: the BASICS three-arm RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from (...) the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} The antibiotic-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunt reduced infection whereas the silver did not; the antibiotic shunt is likely to be cost-saving. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , & . Conor L Mallucci 1, * , Michael D Jenkinson 2, 3 , Elizabeth J Conroy 4 , John C Hartley 5 , Michaela Brown 4 , Tracy Moitt 4 , Joanne

2020 NIHR HTA programme

2. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for safely reducing antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the PACE RCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for safely reducing antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the PACE RCT C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for safely reducing antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the PACE RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose (...) a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Point-of-care testing resulted in a 20% absolute reduction in patient-reported antibiotic consumption over 4 weeks, without impairing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease health status. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Nick A Francis 1, * , David Gillespie 2 , Patrick White 3

2020 NIHR HTA programme

3. The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display (...) , please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} There is major variability in Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy services in England; most patients would prefer home treatment, where a visiting specialist nurse service

2017 NIHR HTA programme

4. Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis is an infection of the central nervous system, caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete capable of infecting almost any organ or tissue in the body causing neurological complications due to the infection. This disease is a tertiary manifestation of syphilis. The first-line treatment for neurosyphilis is aqueous crystalline penicillin. However, in cases such as penicillin allergy, other regimes of antibiotic therapy can be used.To (...) assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis.We searched the Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Opengrey up to April 2019. We also searched proceedings of eight congresses to a maximum of 10 years, and we contacted trial authors for additional information.We included randomised clinical trials that included men and women, regardless of age, with definitive

2019 Cochrane

5. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain (...) of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2016.To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis.We searched Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 18 February 2019); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 1) in the Cochrane Library (searched 18 February 2019); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 February 2019); Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 February 2019); US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register

2019 Cochrane

6. Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis (CF) a life-limiting inherited disease affecting a number of organs, but classically associated with chronic lung infection and progressive loss of lung function. Chronic infection by Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and therefore represents a significant challenge to clinicians treating people with CF. This review (...) examines the current evidence for long-term antibiotic therapy in people with CF and chronic BCC infection.The objective of this review is to assess the effects of long-term oral and inhaled antibiotic therapy targeted against chronic BCC lung infections in people with CF. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of treatments in terms of improvements in lung function and reductions in exacerbation rate. Secondary objectives include quantifying adverse events, mortality and changes in quality

2019 Cochrane

7. Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Abstract)

Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long-term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD (...) , but there are concerns about antibiotic resistance and safety.To compare the safety and efficacy of different classes of antibiotics (continuous, intermittent or pulsed) for prophylaxis of exacerbations in patients with COPD.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was conducted on 6 February 2019.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were selected that compared one prophylactic antibiotic with another in patients with COPD.We used

2019 Cochrane

8. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Progressive lung damage from recurrent exacerbations is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. Life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly (...) defined. Individuals usually receive intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, but treatment may range from 10 to 21 days. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment risks inadequate clearance of infection which could lead to further lung damage. Prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics are expensive and inconvenient. The risk of systemic side effects such as allergic reactions to antibiotics also increases with prolonged courses and the use of aminoglycosides requires frequent monitoring to minimise

2019 Cochrane

9. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. The clinical presentation of acute chest syndrome is similar whether due to infectious or non-infectious causes, thus antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat all episodes. Many different pathogens, including bacteria, have been implicated as causative agents of acute chest syndrome. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus (...) , there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from acute chest syndrome. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007, and most recently updated in 2015.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (used alone or in combination):1. is effective for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard treatment;2. is safe for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard

2019 Cochrane

10. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. Surgery has been used as part of breast cancer treatment for centuries; however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are documented at between 3% and 15%, higher than average for a clean surgical procedure. Pre- and perioperative antibiotics have been found to be useful in lowering infection rates in other surgical groups, yet (...) there is no consensus on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for breast cancer surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2014.To determine the effects of prophylactic (pre- or perioperative) antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after breast cancer surgery.For this fourth update, in August 2018 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process

2019 Cochrane

11. Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. (Abstract)

Antibiotics for treating osteomyelitis in people with sickle cell disease. Osteomyelitis (both acute and chronic) is one of the most common infectious complications in people with sickle cell disease. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from osteomyelitis (...) . This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (monotherapy or combination therapy) is effective and safe as compared to pathogen-directed antibiotic treatment and whether this effectiveness and safety is dependent on different treatment regimens, age or setting.We searched The Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearching of relevant

2019 Cochrane

12. Antibiotics for trachoma. (Abstract)

, and it was difficult to judge risk of bias.There was low-certainty evidence of little or no difference in effect between oral and topical antibiotics on active trachoma at three months (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.16; 953 people; 6 RCTs; I2 = 63%) and 12 months (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.15; 886 people; 5 RCTs; I2 = 56%). There was very low-certainty evidence for ocular infection at three or 12 months. Antimicrobial resistance was not assessed. In those studies that reported adverse effects, no serious adverse (...) Antibiotics for trachoma. Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. In 1996, WHO launched the Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020, based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement).To assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective), Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the conjunctiva

2019 Cochrane

13. Antibacterial-coated sutures versus non-antibacterial-coated sutures for the prevention of abdominal, superficial and deep, surgical site infection (SSI)

low risk of bias RCTs 83 Table 19: The length of hospital stay in triclosan-coated vs non-antibacterial coated sutures patient groups 85 Table 20: The proportion of patients requiring secondary surgery for wound-related complications of surgery 86 Table 21: The incidence of complete abdominal wound dehiscence within 30 days of surgery and incisional hernia during the period of study follow-up 87 Table 22: Causative microorganism of SSI and the use of systemic antibiotic therapy within 30 days (...) Controlled Trial REA Relative Effectiveness Assessment RoB Risk of Bias RR Relative risk SAE Serious Adverse Event SAF Safety domain Antibacterial-coated sutures for the prevention of abdominal SSI Version 1.4, March 2017 EUnetHTA Joint Action 3 WP4 10 SAP Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis SDGC Study Center of the German Surgical Society SHEA The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America SHEA/IDSA Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Infectious Diseases Society of America SI Superficial

2017 EUnetHTA

14. Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Short-course versus long-course therapy of the same antibiotic for community-acquired pneumonia in adolescent and adult outpatients. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects (...) , but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients). We planned to investigate non-inferiority of short-course versus longer-term course treatment for efficacy outcomes, and superiority of short-course treatment for safety outcomes.We searched CENTRAL, which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory

2018 Cochrane

15. Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Continuous versus intermittent antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease characterised by a destructive cycle of recurrent airway infection, inflammation and tissue damage. Antibiotics are a main treatment for bronchiectasis. The aim of continuous therapy with prophylactic antibiotics is to suppress bacterial load, but bacteria may become resistant to the antibiotic, leading to a loss of effectiveness. On the other hand, intermittent prophylactic antibiotics (...) , given over a predefined duration and interval, may reduce antibiotic selection pressure and reduce or prevent the development of resistance. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the current evidence for studies comparing continuous versus intermittent administration of antibiotic treatment in bronchiectasis in terms of clinical efficacy, the emergence of resistance and serious adverse events.To evaluate the effectiveness of continuous versus intermittent antibiotics in the treatment of adults

2018 Cochrane

16. Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnancy. Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and is a major public health challenge today. N gonorrhoeae can be transmitted from the mother's genital tract to the newborn during birth, and can cause gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum as well as systemic neonatal infections. It can also cause endometritis and pelvic sepsis in the mother. This review updates and replaces an earlier Cochrane Review (...) on antibiotics for treating this infectious condition.To assess the clinical effectiveness and harms of antibiotics for treating gonorrhoea in pregnant women.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2017), LILACS database (1982 to April 5, 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; April 5, 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov (April 5, 2017), the ISRCTN Registry (April 5, 2017), and Epistemonikos (April 5, 2017). We also searched reference lists

2018 Cochrane

17. Inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Inhaled anti-pseudomonal antibiotics for long-term therapy in cystic fibrosis. Inhaled antibiotics are commonly used to treat persistent airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa that contributes to lung damage in people with cystic fibrosis. Current guidelines recommend inhaled tobramycin for individuals with cystic fibrosis and persistent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection who are aged six years or older. The aim is to reduce bacterial load in the lungs so as to reduce inflammation (...) and deterioration of lung function. This is an update of a previously published review.To evaluate the effects long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis on clinical outcomes (lung function, frequency of exacerbations and nutrition), quality of life and adverse events (including drug sensitivity reactions and survival).We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also

2018 Cochrane

18. Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics at the time of removal of central venous catheter to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Late-onset sepsis is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity in newborn infants, in addition to poorer long-term developmental outcomes and increased length of stay and hospital costs. Central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) is the most common cause of late-onset sepsis in hospitalised infants, and prevention of CLABSI is a key objective (...) in neonatal care. Increased frequency of CLABSI around the time of removal of central venous catheters (CVCs) has been reported, and use of antibiotics at the time of removal may reduce the incidence and impact of late-onset sepsis in vulnerable newborn infants.To determine the efficacy and safety of giving antibiotics at the time of removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) for reduction of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants, in particular effects on late-onset sepsis.We used the standard search

2018 Cochrane

19. Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral versus inhaled antibiotics for bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by a recurrent cycle of respiratory bacterial infections associated with cough, sputum production and impaired quality of life. Antibiotics are the main therapeutic option for managing bronchiectasis exacerbations. Evidence suggests that inhaled antibiotics may be associated with more effective eradication of infective organisms and a lower risk of developing antibiotic resistance (...) when compared with orally administered antibiotics. However, it is currently unclear whether antibiotics are more effective when administered orally or by inhalation.To determine the comparative efficacy and safety of oral versus inhaled antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis.We identified studies through searches of the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register (CAGR), which is maintained by the Information Specialist for the group. The Register contains trial

2018 Cochrane

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