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antibiotics

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1. A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study

A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study A randomised placebo-controlled trial of oral and topical antibiotics for children with clinically infected eczema in the community: the ChildRen with Eczema, Antibiotic Management (CREAM) study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found

2016 NIHR HTA programme

2. Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study

Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study Electronically delivered interventions to reduce antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections in primary care: cluster RCT using electronic health records and cohort study Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page (...) you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} This electronically delivered intervention reduced general practice antibiotic prescribing for respiratory infections. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Martin C Gulliford 1, 2, * , Dorota Juszczyk 1, 2 , A Toby Prevost 1, 2, 3 , Jamie Soames 4

2019 NIHR HTA programme

3. Anaesthetic analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT

Anaesthetic analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT Anaesthetic analgesic ear drops to reduce antibiotic consumption in children with acute otitis media: the CEDAR RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find (...) the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Anaesthetic analgesic eardrops reduced antibiotic consumption, but a short recruitment period led to a reduced sample size and imprecise treatment effect estimates. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Alastair D Hay 1, * , Harriet Downing 2 , Nick A Francis 3 , Grace J Young 4 , Clare Clement 4 , Sue D Harris 1 , Aideen Ahern 4 , Behnaz Schofield 3 , Tammy E

2019 NIHR HTA programme

4. Antibiotics for treating urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and non-pregnant women. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for treating urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and non-pregnant women. The genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. The infection is mainly asymptomatic in women, thus it can produce infertility and chronic pelvic pain. In men infection is mainly symptomatic, but can evolve to prostatitis. Clinical practice guidelines for CT urogenital infections do not give any specific recommendation about (...) which antibiotic use as first option OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotic treatment for CT genital infection in men and non-pregnant women.The Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections' (STI) Information Specialist developed the electronic searches in electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS), and trials registers. We searched studies published from inception to June 2018.We included parallel, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of men, and sexually-active, non

2019 Cochrane

5. Early discontinuation of antibiotics for febrile neutropenia versus continuation until neutropenia resolution in people with cancer. (PubMed)

Early discontinuation of antibiotics for febrile neutropenia versus continuation until neutropenia resolution in people with cancer. People with cancer with febrile neutropenia are at risk of severe infections and mortality and are thus treated empirically with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. However, the recommended duration of antibiotic therapy differs across guidelines.To assess the safety of protocol-guided discontinuation of antibiotics regardless of neutrophil count, compared (...) to continuation of antibiotics until neutropenia resolution in people with cancer with fever and neutropenia, in terms of mortality and morbidity. To assess the emergence of resistant bacteria in people with cancer treated with short courses of antibiotic therapy compared with people with cancer treated until resolution of neutropenia.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 10) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS up to 1 October 2018. We searched

2019 Cochrane

6. Antibiotic treatment for newborns with congenital syphilis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic treatment for newborns with congenital syphilis. Congenital syphilis continues to be a substantial public health problem in many parts of the world. Since the first use of penicillin for the treatment of syphilis in 1943, which was a notable early success, it has remained the preferred and standard treatment including for congenital syphilis. However, the treatment of congenital syphilis is largely based on clinical experience and there is extremely limited evidence on the optimal (...) dose or duration of administration of penicillin or the use of other antibiotics.To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic treatment for newborns with confirmed, highly probable and possible congenital syphilis.We searched the Cochrane STI Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov and Web of Science to 23 May 2018. We also handsearched conference proceedings, contacted trial authors and reviewed the reference lists of retrieved

2019 Cochrane

7. Antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Several antibiotics have been evaluated in Crohn's disease (CD), however randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have produced conflicting results.To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in CD.We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register and Clinicaltrials.gov database from inception to 28 February 2018. We also searched reference lists (...) and conference proceedings.RCTs comparing antibiotics to placebo or an active comparator in adult (> 15 years) CD patients were considered for inclusion.Two authors screened search results and extracted data. Bias was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcomes were failure to achieve clinical remission and relapse. Secondary outcomes included clinical response, endoscopic response, endoscopic remission, endoscopic relapse, histologic response, histologic remission, adverse events

2019 Cochrane

8. Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication. (PubMed)

Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication. Macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide and are used for a wide range of infections. However, macrolides also expose people to the risk of adverse events. The current understanding of adverse events is mostly derived from observational studies, which are subject to bias because it is hard to distinguish events caused by antibiotics from events caused (...) by the diseases being treated. Because adverse events are treatment-specific, rather than disease-specific, it is possible to increase the number of adverse events available for analysis by combining randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the same treatment across different diseases.To quantify the incidences of reported adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics compared to placebo for any indication.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which includes

2019 Cochrane

9. Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. (PubMed)

Long-term antibiotics for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection in children. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children. Symptoms include fever, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. UTI is caused by Escherichia coli in over 80% of cases and treatment is a course of antibiotics. Due to acute illness caused by UTI and the risk of pyelonephritis-induced permanent kidney damage, many children are given long-term (several months to 2 years) antibiotics aimed at preventing recurrence (...) . This is the third update of a review first published in 2001 and updated in 2006, and 2011.To assess whether long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was more effective than placebo/no treatment in preventing recurrence of UTI in children, and if so which antibiotic in clinical use was the most effective. We also assessed the harms of long-term antibiotic treatment.We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 30 July 2018 through contact with the Cochrane Information Specialist using search

2019 Cochrane

10. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (PubMed)

Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Antibiotics alter the microbial balance commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via providing gut barrier, restoration of the gut microflora, and other potential mechanisms of action.The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose) used for the prevention of AAD in children.MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL (...) , and the Web of Science (inception to 28 May 2018) were searched along with registers including the ISRCTN and Clinicaltrials.gov. We also searched the NICE Evidence Services database as well as reference lists from relevant articles.Randomized, parallel, controlled trials in children (0 to 18 years) receiving antibiotics, that compare probiotics to placebo, active alternative prophylaxis, or no treatment and measure the incidence of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic use were considered for inclusion.Study

2019 Cochrane

11. Community-based antibiotic delivery for possible serious bacterial infections in neonates in low- and middle-income countries. (PubMed)

Community-based antibiotic delivery for possible serious bacterial infections in neonates in low- and middle-income countries. The recommended management for neonates with a possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI) is hospitalisation and treatment with intravenous antibiotics, such as ampicillin plus gentamicin. However, hospitalisation is often not feasible for neonates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, alternative options for the management of neonatal PSBI in LMICs (...) needs to be evaluated.To assess the effects of community-based antibiotics for neonatal PSBI in LMICs on neonatal mortality and to assess whether the effects of community-based antibiotics for neonatal PSBI differ according to the antibiotic regimen administered.We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2018, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 16 April 2018), Embase (1980 to 16 April 2018), and CINAHL (1982

2019 Cochrane

12. Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic therapy for chronic infection with Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis (CF) a life-limiting inherited disease affecting a number of organs, but classically associated with chronic lung infection and progressive loss of lung function. Chronic infection by Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and therefore represents a significant challenge to clinicians treating people with CF. This review (...) examines the current evidence for long-term antibiotic therapy in people with CF and chronic BCC infection.The objective of this review is to assess the effects of long-term oral and inhaled antibiotic therapy targeted against chronic BCC lung infections in people with CF. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy of treatments in terms of improvements in lung function and reductions in exacerbation rate. Secondary objectives include quantifying adverse events, mortality and changes in quality

2019 Cochrane

13. Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (PubMed)

Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; including chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic respiratory condition characterised by shortness of breath, cough and recurrent exacerbations. Long-term antibiotic use may reduce both bacterial load and inflammation in the airways. Studies have shown a reduction of exacerbations with antibiotics in comparison to placebo in people with COPD (...) , but there are concerns about antibiotic resistance and safety.To compare the safety and efficacy of different classes of antibiotics (continuous, intermittent or pulsed) for prophylaxis of exacerbations in patients with COPD.We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant studies. The latest literature search was conducted on 6 February 2019.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were selected that compared one prophylactic antibiotic with another in patients with COPD.We used

2019 Cochrane

14. Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis is an infection of the central nervous system, caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete capable of infecting almost any organ or tissue in the body causing neurological complications due to the infection. This disease is a tertiary manifestation of syphilis. The first-line treatment for neurosyphilis is aqueous crystalline penicillin. However, in cases such as penicillin allergy, other regimes of antibiotic therapy can be used.To (...) assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis.We searched the Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Opengrey up to April 2019. We also searched proceedings of eight congresses to a maximum of 10 years, and we contacted trial authors for additional information.We included randomised clinical trials that included men and women, regardless of age, with definitive

2019 Cochrane

15. Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic use for irreversible pulpitis. Irreversible pulpitis, which is characterised by acute and intense pain, is one of the most frequent reasons that patients attend for emergency dental care. Apart from removal of the tooth, the customary way of relieving the pain of irreversible pulpitis is by drilling into the tooth, removing the inflamed pulp (nerve) and cleaning the root canal. However, a significant number of dentists continue to prescribe antibiotics to stop the pain (...) of irreversible pulpitis.This review updates the previous version published in 2016.To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for irreversible pulpitis.We searched Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 18 February 2019); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 1) in the Cochrane Library (searched 18 February 2019); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 18 February 2019); Embase Ovid (1980 to 18 February 2019); US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register

2019 Cochrane

16. Route of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid-shunt infection. (PubMed)

Route of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of cerebrospinal fluid-shunt infection. The main complication of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt surgery is shunt infection. Prevention of these shunt infections consists of the perioperative use of antibiotics that can be administered in five different ways: orally; intravenously; intrathecally; topically; and via the implantation of antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters.To determine the effect of different routes of antibiotic prophylaxis (i.e (...) . oral, intravenous, intrathecal, topical and via antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters) on CSF-shunt infections in persons treated for hydrocephalus using internalised CSF shunts.We conducted a systematic electronic search without restrictions on language, date or publication type. We performed the search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase, with the help of the Information Specialist of the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare

2019 Cochrane

17. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. (PubMed)

Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Progressive lung damage from recurrent exacerbations is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. Life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly (...) defined. Individuals usually receive intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, but treatment may range from 10 to 21 days. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment risks inadequate clearance of infection which could lead to further lung damage. Prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics are expensive and inconvenient. The risk of systemic side effects such as allergic reactions to antibiotics also increases with prolonged courses and the use of aminoglycosides requires frequent monitoring to minimise

2019 Cochrane

18. Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for treating acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. The clinical presentation of acute chest syndrome is similar whether due to infectious or non-infectious causes, thus antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat all episodes. Many different pathogens, including bacteria, have been implicated as causative agents of acute chest syndrome. There is no standardized approach to antibiotic therapy and treatment is likely to vary from country to country. Thus (...) , there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different antibiotic treatment approaches for people with sickle cell disease suffering from acute chest syndrome. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2007, and most recently updated in 2015.To determine whether an empirical antibiotic treatment approach (used alone or in combination):1. is effective for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard treatment;2. is safe for acute chest syndrome compared to placebo or standard

2019 Cochrane

19. Antibiotics for trachoma. (PubMed)

Antibiotics for trachoma. Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. In 1996, WHO launched the Alliance for the Global Elimination of Trachoma by the year 2020, based on the 'SAFE' strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement).To assess the evidence supporting the antibiotic arm of the SAFE strategy by assessing the effects of antibiotics on both active trachoma (primary objective), Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the conjunctiva (...) , antibiotic resistance, and adverse effects (secondary objectives).We searched relevant electronic databases and trials registers. The date of the last search was 4 January 2019.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that satisfied either of two criteria: (a) trials in which topical or oral administration of an antibiotic was compared to placebo or no treatment in people or communities with trachoma, (b) trials in which a topical antibiotic was compared with an oral antibiotic in people

2019 Cochrane

20. Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. (PubMed)

Prophylactic antibiotics to prevent surgical site infection after breast cancer surgery. Surgery has been used as part of breast cancer treatment for centuries; however any surgical procedure has the potential risk of infection. Infection rates for surgical treatment of breast cancer are documented at between 3% and 15%, higher than average for a clean surgical procedure. Pre- and perioperative antibiotics have been found to be useful in lowering infection rates in other surgical groups, yet (...) there is no consensus on the use of prophylactic antibiotics for breast cancer surgery. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005 and last updated in 2014.To determine the effects of prophylactic (pre- or perioperative) antibiotics on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after breast cancer surgery.For this fourth update, in August 2018 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process

2019 Cochrane

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