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antibiotics

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1. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma: duration of use and antibiotic choice. (Abstract)

Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma: duration of use and antibiotic choice. Penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT) is a common type of trauma leading to admission to hospital, which often progresses to septic complications. Antibiotics are commonly administered as prophylaxis prior to laparotomy for PAT. However, an earlier Cochrane Review intending to compare antibiotics with placebo identified no relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Despite this, many RCTs have been (...) carried out that compare different agents and durations of antibiotic therapy. To date, no systematic review of these trials has been performed.To assess the effects of antibiotics in penetrating abdominal trauma, with respect to the type of agent administered and the duration of therapy.We searched the following electronic databases for relevant randomised controlled trials, from database inception to 23 July 2019; Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, MEDLINE Ovid

2019 Cochrane

2. Standard versus biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Standard versus biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis. Clinicians typically select the antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer (...) ) in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review.To compare biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy to conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy in the treatment

2020 Cochrane

3. Silver-impregnated, antibiotic-impregnated or non-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts to prevent shunt infection: the BASICS three-arm RCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

Silver-impregnated, antibiotic-impregnated or non-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts to prevent shunt infection: the BASICS three-arm RCT Silver-impregnated, antibiotic-impregnated or non-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunts to prevent shunt infection: the BASICS three-arm RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from (...) the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} The antibiotic-impregnated ventriculoperitoneal shunt reduced infection whereas the silver did not; the antibiotic shunt is likely to be cost-saving. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , & . Conor L Mallucci 1, * , Michael D Jenkinson 2, 3 , Elizabeth J Conroy 4 , John C Hartley 5 , Michaela Brown 4 , Tracy Moitt 4 , Joanne

2020 NIHR HTA programme

4. C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for safely reducing antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the PACE RCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for safely reducing antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the PACE RCT C-reactive protein point-of-care testing for safely reducing antibiotics for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the PACE RCT Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display, please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose (...) a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} Point-of-care testing resulted in a 20% absolute reduction in patient-reported antibiotic consumption over 4 weeks, without impairing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease health status. {{author}} {{($index , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , & . Nick A Francis 1, * , David Gillespie 2 , Patrick White 3

2020 NIHR HTA programme

5. Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perioperative antibiotics for preventing post-surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk for infections due to the complexity of surgical procedures combined with the impact of immunosuppression. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients.To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antimicrobial agents for preventing surgical site infections in solid (...) antibiotics in preventing surgical site infections in solid organ transplant recipients at any time point after transplantation.Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed quality, and extracted data. Primary outcomes were surgical site infections and antimicrobial resistance. Other outcomes included urinary tract infections, pneumonias and septicaemia, death (any cause), graft loss, graft rejection, graft function, adverse reactions to antimicrobial agents, and outcomes identified

2020 Cochrane

6. Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) affects 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The main intervention for acute PID is broad-spectrum antibiotics administered intravenously, intramuscularly or orally. We assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens to treat PID.In January 2020, we searched the Cochrane Sexually Transmitted Infections Review Group's Specialized (...) Register, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from 1944 to 2020, located through hand and electronic searching; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; four other databases; and abstracts in selected publications.We included RCTs comparing antibiotics with placebo or other antibiotics for the treatment of PID in women of reproductive age, either as inpatient or outpatient treatment. We limited our review to a comparison of drugs in current use that are recommended by the 2015 US Centers for Disease

2020 Cochrane

7. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis is a multi-system disease characterised by the production of thick secretions causing recurrent pulmonary infection, often with unusual bacteria. This leads to lung destruction and eventually death through respiratory failure. There are no antibiotics in development that exert a new mode of action and many of the current antibiotics are ineffective in eradicating the bacteria once chronic infection (...) is established. Antibiotic adjuvants - therapies that act by rendering the organism more susceptible to attack by antibiotics or the host immune system, by rendering it less virulent or killing it by other means, would be a significant therapeutic advance. This is an update of a previously published review.To determine if antibiotic adjuvants improve clinical and microbiological outcome of pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis.We searched the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register which is compiled

2020 Cochrane

8. Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prophylactic anti-staphylococcal antibiotics for cystic fibrosis. Staphylococcus aureus causes pulmonary infection in young children with cystic fibrosis. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed hoping to prevent such infection and lung damage. Antibiotics have adverse effects and long-term use might lead to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This is an update of a previously published review.To assess continuous oral antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of Staphylococcus (...) aureus versus no prophylaxis in people with cystic fibrosis, we tested the following hypotheses to investigate whether prophylaxis: 1. improves clinical status, lung function and survival; 2. leads to fewer isolates of Staphylococcus aureus; 3. causes adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, skin rash, candidiasis); 4. leads to fewer isolates of other common pathogens from respiratory secretions; 5. leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance and colonisation of the respiratory tract with Pseudomonas

2020 Cochrane

9. Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. (Abstract)

Appendectomy versus antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. This Cochrane review has been withdrawn. The Cochrane review is out of date and included a retracted article in the analysis. Withdrawn by Cochrane Colorectal Group. A new update is expected. The editorial group responsible for this previously published document have withdrawn it from publication.Copyright © 2020 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2020 Cochrane

10. A comparison of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of infective endocarditis. (Abstract)

A comparison of different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis is a microbial infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. Antibiotics are the cornerstone of treatment, but due to the differences in presentation, populations affected, and the wide variety of micro-organisms that can be responsible, their use is not standardised. This is an update of a review previously published in 2016.To assess the existing evidence about the clinical (...) benefits and harms of different antibiotics regimens used to treat people with infective endocarditis.We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase Classic and Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science on 6 January 2020. We also searched three trials registers and handsearched the reference lists of included papers. We applied no language restrictions.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects

2020 Cochrane

11. Efficacy and safety of rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat. (Abstract)

Efficacy and safety of rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat. Sore throat is a common condition caused by viruses or bacteria, and is a leading cause of antibiotic prescription in primary care. The most common bacterial species is group A streptococcus ('strep throat'). Between 50% to 70% of pharyngitis cases are treated with antibiotics, despite the majority of cases being viral in origin. One strategy to reduce antibiotics is to use rapid tests for group (...) A streptococcus to guide antibiotic prescriptions. Rapid tests can be used alone or in combination with a clinical scoring system.To assess the efficacy and safety of strategies based on rapid tests to guide antibiotic prescriptions for sore throat in primary care settings.We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science, and LILACS, as well as the trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP on 5 June 2019.We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing rapid tests

2020 Cochrane

12. Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

with cystic fibrosis leading to more a rapid decline in lung function and even death in certain circumstances. Although there are guidelines for the antimicrobial treatment of nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease, these recommendations are not specific for people with cystic fibrosis and it is not clear which antibiotic regimen may be the most effective in the treatment of these individuals. This is an update of a previous review.The objective of our review was to compare antibiotic treatment (...) Antibiotic treatment for nontuberculous mycobacteria lung infection in people with cystic fibrosis. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are mycobacteria, other than those in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and are commonly found in the environment. Nontuberculous mycobacteria species (most commonly Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus) are isolated from the respiratory tract of approximately 5% to 40% of individuals with cystic fibrosis; they can cause lung disease in people

2020 Cochrane

13. Topical antibiotics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Topical antibiotics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and often polymicrobial infection (involving more than one micro-organism) of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Topical antibiotics, the most common treatment for CSOM (...) , act to kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms that may be responsible for the infection. Antibiotics can be used alone or in addition to other treatments for CSOM, such as antiseptics or ear cleaning (aural toileting).To assess the effects of topical antibiotics (without steroids) for people with CSOM.The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase

2020 Cochrane

14. Antibiotics versus topical antiseptics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotics versus topical antiseptics for chronic suppurative otitis media. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), sometimes referred to as chronic otitis media (COM), is a chronic inflammation and infection of the middle ear and mastoid cavity, characterised by ear discharge (otorrhoea) through a perforated tympanic membrane. The predominant symptoms of CSOM are ear discharge and hearing loss. Antibiotics and antiseptics kill or inhibit the micro-organisms that may be responsible (...) for the infection. Antibiotics can be applied topically or administered systemically via the oral or injection route. Antiseptics are always directly applied to the ear (topically).To assess the effectiveness of antibiotics versus antiseptics for people with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM).The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the Cochrane ENT Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 4, via the Cochrane Register of Studies); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; CINAHL; Web

2020 Cochrane

15. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery. Vacuum and forceps assisted vaginal deliveries are reported to increase the incidence of postpartum infections and maternal readmission to hospital compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Prophylactic antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent these infections. However, the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal deliveries is still unclear. This is an update of a review last published in 2017.To assess the effectiveness (...) and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing infectious puerperal morbidities in women undergoing operative vaginal deliveries including vacuum or forceps delivery, or both.For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (5 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies.All randomised controlled trials comparing any prophylactic antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment

2020 Cochrane

16. Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation. Chronic pulmonary infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Infections dominated by organisms of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of at least 18 closely-related species of gram-negative bacteria, are particularly difficult to treat. These infections may be associated with a fulminant necrotising pneumonia. Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria (...) are resistant to many common antibiotics and able to acquire resistance against many more. Following patient segregation in cystic fibrosis medical care, the more virulent epidemic strains are not as frequent, and new infections are more likely to be with less virulent environmentally-acquired strains. Although evidence-based guidelines exist for treating respiratory exacerbations involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa, these cannot be extended to Burkholderia cepacia complex infections. This review, which

2020 Cochrane

17. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative wound infection in adults undergoing open elective inguinal or femoral hernia repair. (Abstract)

Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative wound infection in adults undergoing open elective inguinal or femoral hernia repair. Inguinal or femoral hernia is a tissue protrusion in the groin region and has a cumulative incidence of 27% in adult men and of 3% in adult women. As most hernias become symptomatic over time, groin hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. This type of surgery is considered 'clean' surgery with wound infection (...) rates expected to be lower than 5%. For clean surgical procedures, antibiotic prophylaxis is not generally recommended. However after the introduction of mesh-based hernia repair and the publication of studies that have high wound infection rates the debate as to whether antibiotic prophylaxis is required to prevent postoperative wound infections started again.To determine the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing postoperative (superficial and deep) wound infections in elective open

2020 Cochrane

18. Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the most common emerging multi-drug resistant organisms found in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis and its prevalence is increasing. Chronic infection with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has recently been shown to be an independent predictor of pulmonary exacerbation requiring hospitalization and antibiotics. However, the role of antibiotic treatment (...) of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in people with cystic fibrosis is still unclear. This is an update of a previously published review.The objective of our review is to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in people with cystic fibrosis. The primary objective is to assess this in relation to lung function and pulmonary exacerbations in the setting of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The secondary objective is to assess this in relation to the eradication

2020 Cochrane

19. The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy The Community IntraVenous Antibiotic Study (CIVAS): a mixed-methods evaluation of patient preferences for and cost-effectiveness of different service models for delivering outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy Journals Library An error occurred retrieving content to display (...) , please try again. >> >> >> Page Not Found Page not found (404) Sorry - the page you requested could not be found. Please choose a page from the navigation or try a website search above to find the information you need. >> >> >> >> Issue {{metadata .Issue }} Toolkit 1)"> 0)"> 1)"> {{metadata.Title}} {{metadata.Headline}} There is major variability in Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy services in England; most patients would prefer home treatment, where a visiting specialist nurse service

2017 NIHR HTA programme

20. Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. (Abstract)

Antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis is an infection of the central nervous system, caused by Treponema pallidum, a spirochete capable of infecting almost any organ or tissue in the body causing neurological complications due to the infection. This disease is a tertiary manifestation of syphilis. The first-line treatment for neurosyphilis is aqueous crystalline penicillin. However, in cases such as penicillin allergy, other regimes of antibiotic therapy can be used.To (...) assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic therapy for adults with neurosyphilis.We searched the Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Opengrey up to April 2019. We also searched proceedings of eight congresses to a maximum of 10 years, and we contacted trial authors for additional information.We included randomised clinical trials that included men and women, regardless of age, with definitive

2019 Cochrane

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