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1481. Oxytetracycline

Oxytetracycline USE OF OXYTETRACYCLINE IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF OXYTETRACYCLINE IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: June 2012 , Version: 2.1 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . Summary Oxytetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic with some antiprotozoal activity. Exposure to oxytetracycline in early

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

1482. Nitrofurantoin

Nitrofurantoin USE OF NITROFURANTOIN IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF NITROFURANTOIN IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: June 2017 , Version: 3.1 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic used for the treatment (...) . Nitrofurantoin use is generally avoided in pregnant patients during labour and delivery because of the theoretical possibility of haemolytic anaemia in the fetus, or in the neonate due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems. Where possible, antibiotic choice should be informed by culture and sensitivity tests, however if treatment is required urgently or before test results become available, then nitrofurantoin may be considered where clinically appropriate. Any risks to the fetus from the drugs used

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

1483. Metronidazole

Metronidazole USE OF METRONIDAZOLE IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF METRONIDAZOLE IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: November 2017 , Version: 3 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary Metronidazole is an antimicrobial agent that is used

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

1484. Minocycline

Minocycline USE OF MINOCYCLINE IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF MINOCYCLINE IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: June 2012 , Version: 2.1 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . Summary Minocycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic structurally similar to tetracycline. Tetracycline use in pregnancy is associated

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

1485. Quinolones

, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) are broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotics used in the treatment of a wide variety of infections including those of the urinary tract, respiratory-tract, gastro-intestinal system, bones and joints, as well as gonorrhoea, chlamydia and septicaemia. Ciprofloxacin is also used in the treatment or post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax. No increased risk of congenital malformations overall, low birth weight, preterm delivery, intrauterine death or neonatal (...) complications have been found for in utero exposure to quinolone antibiotics when studied as a class. Data on offspring malformation risk for individual quinolones are generally limited. Single studies have suggested an association between in utero quinolone exposure and conotruncal defects and Tetralogy of Fallot, and in utero nalidixic acid exposure and infantile pyloric stenosis, however these findings were based on a small number of exposed infants with these anomalies. One study found an increased risk

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

1486. Erythromycin

Erythromycin USE OF ERYTHROMYCIN IN PREGNANCY 0344 892 0909 USE OF ERYTHROMYCIN IN PREGNANCY (Date of issue: June 2017 , Version: 2.1 ) This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a . Please encourage all women to complete an . A corresponding patient information leaflet on is available at . Summary The macrolide antibiotics include azithromycin, clarithromycin (...) , erythromycin, spiramycin and telithromycin. Macrolides have an antibacterial spectrum similar to that of penicillin and are thus considered an alternative in penicillin-allergic patients. Indications include sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, skin and soft tissue infection. Azithromycin is also used in the treatment of chlamydia, and clarithromycin in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori . The considerable data for macrolides as a class, and for erythromycin specifically, do

2014 UK Teratology Information Service

1487. Systematic review: Cochrane reviews allow firm conclusions to be made about the effectiveness of various local and systemic treatments for wounds and ulcers

-supported interventions for acute wound healing include topical honey for burns, tap water for cleansing soft tissue injury, prophylactic antibiotics for hand bites and avoidance of silver sulfadiazine as a topical agent. Many common wound care therapies have had no trials conducted to assess their effectiveness. More high-quality research … Request Permissions If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink

2013 Evidence-Based Nursing

1488. Cohort study: Contact with dogs during the first year of life is associated with decreased risk of respiratory illness Full Text available with Trip Pro

and the time a child spent in the house was recorded. Potential confounding variables like parental atopy, number of siblings, living environment and day-care attendance were obtained. Children, for whom less than half of the questionnaires were filled in, were excluded from data analysis. Findings Children with dog contacts at home were significantly healthier during the study period, had fewer weeks with fever and otitis, and needed fewer courses of antibiotics than children without dog contacts, after

2013 Evidence-Based Nursing

1491. Docetaxel Injection

that there are no outstanding clinical microbiology or sterility issues that preclude approval. The initial microbiology review, completed by Anastasia G. Lolas, Ph.D. on 4/11/08 identified several deficiencies. Specifically, additional information was required and requested for the process of depyrogenation of vials , efficacy of the to remove bacterial endotoxins, procedures and specifications for media fills, and for the summary of antimicrobial effectiveness test results. The request was sent on 4/11/08 and a response

2011 FDA - Drug Approval Package

1492. Collagen Cross-Linking Using Riboflavin and Ultraviolet-A for Corneal Thinning Disorders

-Linking For Corneal Thinning Disorders Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee 3 preservative-free tears, anti-inflammatory drops and antibiotic eye drops. Patients are recalled 1 week postoperatively to evaluate healing and are followed up subsequently. Not all KC patients are eligible candidates for CXL. For example, individuals primarily desiring to improve their vision are not suitable candidates. Treatment is considered for people with progressive disease who are contact lens intolerant (...) of complications. Complications such as infection and noninfectious keratitis (inflammatory response) reported in case reports generally occurred in the first week and were successfully treated with topical antibiotics and steroids. Other complications, such as the cytotoxic effects on the targeted corneal stroma, occurred as side effects of the photo-oxidative process generated by riboflavin and ultraviolet-A and were usually reversible. The reports on treatment effectiveness involved 15 pre-post longitudinal

2011 Health Quality Ontario

1493. Specialized Multidisciplinary Community - Based Care for Chronic Wounds: A Field Evaluation

(Shannon, 2007). Treatment of Chronic Wounds Treatment for chronic wounds is complex, requiring consideration of system, provider, patient and wound characteristics (Bergstrom et al. 2005). Standard care for chronic wounds includes: cleaning with tap water or saline, debridement, application of wound dressings (hydrogel, hydrocolloid, alginate, foam, hydrofiber, transparent film, composite, collagen), treatment of underlying conditions, mobilization, pressure offloading, antibiotics, compression

2011 Health Quality Ontario

1494. Is Adjunctive Dexamethasone Beneficial in Patients with Bacterial Meningitis?

–0.99) CI, Con?dence interval. *Ntotal number of study subjects. ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE MARCH 2012 Volume ??, ??. ? : March ???? Annals of Emergency Medicine 225cused on H in?uenza type b menin- gitis, in which a reduction in hearing loss was found in children treated with dexamethasone in addition to parenteral antibiotics. 2 In 2004, a meta-analysis demonstrated a reduc- tion in mortality and neurologic se- quelae in adults with corticosteroid use. 3 This ?nding was replicated in a Cochrane

2011 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

1495. What is the evidence supporting universal versus risk-based maternal screening to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns?

and Gynaecologists, New Zealand GBS Consensus Working Party, and New Zealand College of Midwives. ? According to a 2007 health technology assessment, until a GBS vaccine is developed, universal, culture-based GBS screening followed by intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS positive women is considered to be the most cost effective strategy for women at low risk of GBS infection (i.e., membrane rupture >18 hours or no risk factors). ? While many guidelines have made recommendations on GBS screening (...) by administration of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) to the mother [CTFPHC 2002, Verani et al. 2010]. The screening method that identifies the greatest number of GBS infected mothers should, therefore, result in the fewest number of infants with early-onset GBS disease. In 1996, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for two screening strategies to prevent perinatal GBS transmission: ? Universal screening: All pregnant women are screened for GBS infection by culture

2011 OHRI Knowledge to Action

1496. eFlow Rapid neubliser for the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis

the progression of the disease. CF patients require lifelong intensive treatment including physiotherapy, antibiotic treatment, dietary control and digestive enzyme capsules. Patients with CF have a shortened life expectancy, with the predominant cause of death being loss of lung function, which begins in infancy and continues throughout the patient’s life (Cystic Fibrosis Australia 2009b). The Pari eFlow Rapid is a small (fits in the palm of your hand), light weight, portable nebuliser, which is capable (...) of efficiently producing aerosols from liquid medications, such as antibiotics, via a vibrating, perforated membrane (Figure 1). Figure 1 The Pari eFlow ® Rapid nebuliser (printed with permission Pari Pharma) Mouthpiece Aerosol head Control unit, on/off button Medication reservoir eFlow Rapid nebuliser: November 2010 3 The device is electronic and therefore quieter than conventional compressor type nebulisers. The device can operate via a charged battery or mains supply. The dimensions of the nebuliser

2011 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

1497. How soon to start: aspirin resumption after upper gastrointestinal bleed? Full Text available with Trip Pro

, Eizayaga F, Desplat V, Belon P, Doutremepuich C: Prothrombotic and hemorrhagic effects of aspirin. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2009, 15: 523-8. 10.1177/1076029608319945. Bouadma L, Luyt CE, Tubach F, Cracco C, Alvarez A, Schwebel C, Schortgen F, Lasocki S, Veber B, Dehoux M, Bernard M, Pasquet B, Régnier B, Brun-Buisson C, Chastre J, Wolff M, PRORATA trial group: Use of procalcitonin to reduce patients' exposure to antibiotics in intensive care units (PRORATA trial): a multicentre randomized controlled

2011 Critical Care - EBM Journal Club

1498. Febuxostat - Gout

(eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytes). The onset of symptoms usually occurs two to eight weeks after therapy initiation of the causative drug (most commonly associated drugs: aromatic anticonvulsants, sulphonamides, allopurinol, antibiotics, and antiretroviral drugs). A large variability in the clinical presentation is seen among different patients, and Common Drug Review Common Drug Review CEDAC Meeting – March 23, 2011 Notice of CEDAC Final Recommendation – April 25, 2011 Page 2 of 5 © 2011 CADTH not all

2011 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Common Drug Review

1499. Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution - Cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic pulmonary pseudomonas aeruginosa infections

had a similar impact on hospitalizations and quality of life compared with inhaled tobramycin. In addition, aztreonam- treated patients had a statistically significant improvement in lung function and a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of intravenous antibiotic use compared with inhaled tobramycin. 2. Although the clinical trial data are limited and aztreonam is associated with additional cost compared with inhaled tobramycin, the Committee recognized patient input (...) that stressed the need for additional antibiotic treatment options. Background: Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic. Aztreonam for inhalation solution has a Health Canada indication for the management of CF patients with chronic pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It is available as a sterile lyophilized powder in single-use vials of 75 mg per vial, for reconstitution and inhalation. The Health Canada-recommended dose for patients six years of age and older is one single-use vial (75 mg

2011 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Common Drug Review

1500. L-methionine in patients with neurogenic bladder disorders

comparator interventions were drug- or non-drug therapies used in patients with neurogenic bladder disorders, either to prevent or treat UTIs or urinary stones (phosphate stones), or to optimize the effect of antibiotics with an optimum impact in acidic urine. Other comparators were placebo interventions. There was no restriction of study duration. The literature screening was performed by 2 reviewers independently of one another. After assessing the risk of bias, the results of the studies included were (...) for the optimization of the effects of antibiotics with an optimum impact in acidic urine. Key words: methionine, L-methionine, urine acidification, neurogenic bladder disorder, urinary tract infection, benefit assessment, systematic review

2010 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

Evidence-based Synopses

Synopses are typically easily digested, critical commentaries of articles e.g. critically appraised topics.