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61. Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial

Universal Glove and Gown Use and Acquisition of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in the ICU: A Randomized Trial PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2016 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

62. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines

Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Antibiotic (...) Prophylaxis in Patients with Orthopedic Implants Undergoing Dental Procedures: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines Published on: February 17, 2016 Project Number: RC0751-000 Product Line: Research Type: Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with orthopedic implants undergoing dental procedures? What are the evidence-based guidelines associated

2016 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

63. Overuse of Antibiotics and the Rise of Superbugs: A Major Global Health Crisis

Overuse of Antibiotics and the Rise of Superbugs: A Major Global Health Crisis I not a bot. Resume. Are you not a robot? Click on the button to continue: I not a bot. Resume.

2018 MedicalVideos

64. Can Procalcitonin Levels Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antibiotic Overconsumption Without Having a Negative Effect on Clinical Outcomes?

Can Procalcitonin Levels Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Bacterial Infections and Reduce Antibiotic Overconsumption Without Having a Negative Effect on Clinical Outcomes? SystematicReviewSnapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE The use of procalcitonin to guide antibiotic initiation or withdrawal in bacterial infections may reduce overall exposure to antibiotics without affecting mortality. However, further multicenter trials based in North America are needed before widespread adoption of procalcitonin-guided (...) the intervention used mea- sured procalcitonin levels to in- form decisions (guide initiation or duration) of antibiotic therapy compared with standard care. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Investigators independently ob- tained data from the selected tri- als by using a standardized data abstraction tool. Results were pooled and odds ratios with 95% con?dence intervals were calcu- lated for overall mortality rates. Antibiotic exposure and outcome data were summarized and grouped by clinical setting. Can

2012 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

65. Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam

in combination with an antibacterial agent active against gram-positive pathogens when these are known or suspected to be contributing to the infectious process. d The total duration shown may include intravenous ceftazidime/avibactam followed by appropriate oral therapy. e There is very limited experience with the use of ceftazidime/avibactam for more than 14 days. Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam (ES16) © NICE 2018. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk (...) Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/avibactam Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/ Antimicrobial prescribing: Ceftazidime/ a avibactam vibactam Evidence summary Published: 13 November 2017 nice.org.uk/guidance/es16 pathways Ov Overview erview This evidence summary outlines the best available evidence for a new intravenous antimicrobial, ceftazidime/avibactam (Zavicefta). It is indicated for treating: complicated intra-abdominal infections complicated urinary tract infections, including

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

66. Concurrent Probiotic and Antibiotic Use for In-Patients: Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness

Concurrent Probiotic and Antibiotic Use for In-Patients: Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Concurrent Probiotic and Antibiotic Use for In-Patients: Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Concurrent Probiotic and Antibiotic Use for In-Patients: Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Concurrent Probiotic and Antibiotic Use for In-Patients: Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness Published on: November 9, 2015 Project Number (...) : RC0727-000 Product Line: Research Type: Drug Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness, including safety, of concurrent probiotic and antibiotic use for in-patients? What is the cost-effectiveness of concurrent probiotic and antibiotic use for in-patients? Key Message Two systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses (MAs) and one randomized controlled trial (RCT) on adult in-patients reported protective effects of probiotics

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

67. Antibiotic Impregnated Cement for Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness

Antibiotic Impregnated Cement for Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness Antibiotic Impregnated Cement for Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Antibiotic Impregnated Cement for Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness Antibiotic Impregnated Cement for Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness Published on: September 30, 2015 Project Number: RC0702-000 Product Line: Research Type (...) : Devices and Systems Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the clinical effectiveness of antibiotic impregnated cement for patients undergoing a primary hip or knee arthroplasty? What is the cost-effectiveness of antibiotic impregnated cement for patients undergoing a primary hip or knee arthroplasty? Key Message Three systematic reviews with meta-analysis, one systemic review with network meta-analysis, three non-randomized studies, and two economic

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

68. Contact Isolation Precautions for Ambulatory Oncology Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines

Contact Isolation Precautions for Ambulatory Oncology Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Contact Isolation Precautions for Ambulatory Oncology Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Contact Isolation Precautions for Ambulatory Oncology Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness (...) and Guidelines Contact Isolation Precautions for Ambulatory Oncology Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines Published on: October 6, 2015 Project Number: RC0712-000 Product Line: Research Type: Other Diagnostics Report Type: Summary with Critical Appraisal Result type: Report Question What is the comparative clinical effectiveness of contact isolation precautions versus routine infection prevention practices for ambulatory oncology patients

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

69. Improving antibiotic use in the community setting

Healthcare professionals PID Pelvic inflammatory disease STI Sexually transmitted infection UTI Urinary tract infection IMPROVING ANTIBIOTIC USE IN THE COMMUNITY SETTING | SAX INSTITUTE 6 1 Executive summary Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a worldwide public health concern. Despite national and international efforts to improve awareness of this issue among consumers, AMR is becoming increasingly more widespread. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is a major contributor to AMR (...) , with decisions to initiate antibiotic therapy unnecessarily, inappropriate choice of agents, and duration of therapy all contributing factors. Improving prescribing behaviour and adherence to guidelines is a key factor in preventing antimicrobial resistance. Hospitals in Australia, and overseas, have launched antibiotic stewardship programs to help reduce rates of inappropriate antibiotic use in order to reduce the growing prevalence of AMR. However, there have been few interventions established

2015 Sax Institute Evidence Check

70. Does the Choice of Antibiotic Affect Outcome in Strep Throat?

Does the Choice of Antibiotic Affect Outcome in Strep Throat? Systematic Review Snapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE There is insuf?cient evidence to show clinically meaningful differences between antibiotics for group A beta hemolytic streptococci tonsillopharyngitis. Penicillin or amoxicillin is recommended as ?rst choice, given the absence of resistance and low cost. Does the Choice of Antibiotic Affect Outcome in Strep Throat? EBEM Commentators Cynthia Santos, MD Stephen Alerhand, MD Department (...) of Emergency Medicine Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY Alex Koyfman, MD Department of Emergency Medicine UT Southwestern Medical Center/Parkland Memorial Hospital Dallas, TX Results Seventeen trials of 5,352 subjects were included, most comparing penicillin with another antibiotic and all including only con?rmed acute group A beta hemolytic streptococci tonsillopharyngitis. Participants were aged 1 month to 80 years. Despite multiple com- parisons, only 2 differences of signi?cance were

2015 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

71. Do Oral Antibiotics After Incision and Drainage of Simple Abscesses Improve Cure Rates?

Do Oral Antibiotics After Incision and Drainage of Simple Abscesses Improve Cure Rates? Systematic Review Snapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE The routine prescription of antibiotics after incision and drainage of simple abscesses does not appear to improve cure rates at 7 to 10 days, but effect on the rate of abscess recurrence remains unclear. Do Oral Antibiotics After Incision and Drainage of Simple Abscesses Improve Cure Rates? EBEM Commentators Na Rae Ju, MD Department of Emergency Medicine Hospital (...) days did not demonstrate evidence of bene?t, the point estimate was imprecise and one of these trials reported a 30-day recurrence rate of 9% among pa- tients randomized to trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole compared with 28% among those who received pla- cebo (approximately a 20% absolute risk reduction). 1 Commentary Skinandsofttissue infections account for more than 3 million ED visits annually intheUnitedStates, whichis Table. Meta-analysis of oral antibiotics versus placebo after incision

2015 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

72. Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Acute Bronchitis?

Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Acute Bronchitis? Systematic Review Snapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE In patients without underlying lung disease, antibiotics in acute bronchitis appear to decrease cough, but the clinical signi?cance of this decrease is uncertain. Their use should be weighed against the cost and potential adverse effects for treatment of a self-limiting disease. Are Antibiotics Effective in the Treatment of Acute Bronchitis? EBEM Commentators Manpreet Singh, MD (...) globalassessmentscoreatfollow-up (RR 0.61; 95% con?dence inter- val [CI] 0.48 to 0.79). However, antibiotics were shown to have a modest bene?t in terms of reducing days feeling ill, days with limited ac- tivity,cough,nightcough,andmean cough duration. Although the risk was considered minor by the au- thors, patients treated with antibi- otics were at increased risk of adverse effects (RR 1.2; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.36;number needed to harm5), most commonly nausea, vomiting, anddiarrhea. Table. Pooled outcomes for antibiotics

2015 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

73. Are Antibiotics Beneficial for the Treatment of Symptomatic Dental Infections?

Are Antibiotics Beneficial for the Treatment of Symptomatic Dental Infections? Systematic Review Snapshot TAKE-HOME MESSAGE There is insuf?cient evidence to draw a conclusion about the bene?t or harm associated with prescribing antibiotics for symptomatic dental infections. Are Antibiotics Bene?cial for the Treatment of Symptomatic Dental Infections? EBEM Commentators Aleksandr M. Tichter, MD, MS Kenneth J. Perry, MD Emergency Medicine Residency New York–Presbyterian Hospital Columbia (...) University Medical Center New York, NY Results Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials studying the effect of oral peni- cillin VK (in combination with oral analgesics and surgical pulpectomy) on the primary outcomes met inclu- sion criteria for this meta-analysis. Although antibiotic and analgesic dosing varied between studies, the antibiotic type and outcomes mea- sures were similar and the individual study summary estimates were deter- mined to be suf?ciently homogenous to combine (range for I 2 ¼0

2015 Annals of Emergency Medicine Systematic Review Snapshots

74. The Timing of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Surgery

/Perioperative%20antibiotic%20pr ophylaxis%20-%20June%202013.pdf See: Paragraph 6, page 14 13. Darouiche R, Mosier M, Voigt J. Antibiotics and antiseptics to prevent infection in cardiac rhythm management device implantation surgery. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2012 Nov;35(11):1348-60. PubMed: PM22946683 Randomized Controlled Trials – Antibiotics Not Specified 14. Mujagic E, Zwimpfer T, Marti WR, Zwahlen M, Hoffmann H, Kindler C, et al. Evaluating the optimal timing of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (...) The Timing of Prophylactic Antibiotics for Surgery Disclaimer: The Rapid Response Service is an information service for those involved in planning and providing health care in Canada. Rapid responses are based on a limited literature search and are not comprehensive, systematic reviews. The intent is to provide a list of sources of the best evidence on the topic that CADTH could identify using all reasonable efforts within the time allowed. Rapid responses should be considered along with other

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

75. Universal Screening for Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Long-Term Care Facilities

Universal Screening for Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Long-Term Care Facilities TITLE: Universal Screening for Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in Long-Term Care Facilities: Clinical Effectiveness and Guidelines DATE: 18 December 2014 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the clinical effectiveness of universal screening for antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) upon admission to a long-term care or continuing care facility? 2. What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding screening residents (...) for AROs upon admission to long-term care or continuing care facilities? KEY FINDINGS One systematic review was identified regarding the clinical effectiveness of universal screening for antibiotic-resistant organisms upon admission to a long-term care or continuing care facility. METHODS A limited literature search was conducted on key resources including PubMed, The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 12), University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) databases, Canadian and major

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

76. Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms

Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms TITLE: Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: Clinical Evidence and Guidelines DATE: 22 December 2014 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the clinical evidence regarding the frequency of rescreening following a negative antibiotic resistant organism (ARO) test result at admission in the acute care setting? 2. What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the frequency (...) at admission in the acute care setting; therefore, no summary can be provided. Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Negative for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms 2 REFERENCES SUMMARIZED Health Technology Assessments No literature identified. Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses No literature identified. Randomized Controlled Trials No literature identified. Non-Randomized Studies No literature identified. Guidelines and Recommendations No literature identified. PREPARED BY: Canadian Agency for Drugs

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

77. Contact Precautions for Patients Previously Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms

Contact Precautions for Patients Previously Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms TITLE: Contact Precautions for Patients Previously Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms: Guidelines DATE: 05 January 2015 RESEARCH QUESTION What are the evidence-based guidelines regarding the management of patients in acute care who have previously tested positive, but are currently negative for antibiotic resistant organisms? KEY FINDINGS No evidence-based guidelines were identified regarding (...) the management of patients in acute care who have previously tested positive, but are currently negative for antibiotic resistant organisms. METHODS A limited literature search was conducted on key resources including PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 12), University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) databases, Canadian and major international health technology agencies, as well as a focused Internet search. Methodological filters were applied to limit retrieval to health

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

78. Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms

setting [Internet]. Dublin (IE): Royal College of Physicians of Ireland; 2012 [cited 2014 Dec 19]. Available from: Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms 4 http://www.hpsc.ie/A- Z/MicrobiologyAntimicrobialResistance/InfectionControlandHAI/Guidelines/File,12922,en.p df See: Third bullet, page 27 Additional References 11. McGeer A, Fleming CA. Antimicrobial resistance in common hospital pathogens in Ontario: report 2011. Toronto (ON): Ontario Medical Association (...) , Quality Management Program - Laboratory Services; 2012 Apr [cited 2014 Dec 19]. Available from: https://iqmh.org/Portals/0/Docs/Resources/Antimicrobial%20Resistance%20Report%2020 11.pdf See: 63. When are precautions discontinued?, page 23 Frequency of Rescreening of Patients Positive for Antibiotic Resistant Organisms 5

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

79. Development of Antibiotic Resistance to Norfloxacin in the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

tract infections in relation to demographic and clinical data. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005 Mar;11(3):199-203. PubMed: PM15715717 PREPARED BY: Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health Tel: 1-866-898-8439 www.cadth.ca Development of Antibiotic Resistance to Norfloxacin in the Treatment of UTIs 3 APPENDIX – FURTHER INFORMATION: Non-Randomized Studies Population Level Resistance Over Time 2. Orrett FA, Davis GK. A comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of urinary pathogens (...) Development of Antibiotic Resistance to Norfloxacin in the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections Disclaimer: The Rapid Response Service is an information service for those involved in planning and providing health care in Canada. Rapid responses are based on a limited literature search and are not comprehensive, systematic reviews. The intent is to provide a list of sources of the best evidence on the topic that CADTH could identify using all reasonable efforts within the time allowed. Rapid

2015 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

80. Empiric Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock From the First Hour: Results From a Guideline-Based Performance Improvement Program

Empiric Antibiotic Treatment Reduces Mortality in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock From the First Hour: Results From a Guideline-Based Performance Improvement Program PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2015 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

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