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341. Axumin for functional imaging of prostate cancer recurrence

targeted therapies, such as highly localised radiotherapy rather than systemic hormone therapy or radiotherapy with larger treatment fields. They thought that these changes could lead to improvements in physical, psychological and social wellbeing for patients. T ackle Prostate Cancer also commented that PET is not widely available throughout the UK, and this can lead to anxiety or distress for those patients who are unable to access the technology. They believed that if Axumin was proven

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

342. Path Finder for freezing of gait in people with Parkinson?s disease

with Parkinson's disease. Also, freezing of gait can cause anxiety because the person may not be aware of the trigger, making symptoms unpredictable. This can reduce their confidence in staying active or leaving the house, and many fear they may freeze in dangerous situations such as in the middle of the road. People with Parkinson's disease can feel misunderstood, and their movements are often misinterpreted. Those with freezing of gait have expressed the increased stress of being in public because

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

343. Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare professionals

incorporated these results. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults aged 18 years and older who are employed as healthcare professionals, comparing any form of psychological intervention to foster resilience, hardiness or post‐traumatic growth versus no intervention, wait‐list, usual care, active or attention control. Primary outcomes were resilience, anxiety, depression, stress or stress perception and well‐being or quality of life. Secondary outcomes were resilience factors. Data (...) , 788 participants), and lower levels of stress or stress perception (SMD −0.61, 95% CI −1.07 to −0.15; 17 studies, 997 participants). There was little or no evidence of any effect of resilience training on anxiety (SMD −0.06, 95% CI −0.35 to 0.23; 5 studies, 231 participants; very‐low certainty evidence) or well‐being or quality of life (SMD 0.14, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.30; 13 studies, 1494 participants; very‐low certainty evidence). Effect sizes were small except for resilience and stress reduction

2020 Cochrane

344. Behavioural activation therapy for depression in adults with non-communicable diseases. (Abstract)

symptoms between behavioural activation and comparators (short term: MD -1.15, 95% CI -2.71 to 0.41; low-certainty evidence). One study found no difference for quality of life (short term: MD 0.40, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.96; low-certainty evidence), functioning (short term: MD 2.70, 95% CI -6.99 to 12.39; low-certainty evidence), and anxiety symptoms (short term: MD -1.70, 95% CI -4.50 to 1.10; low-certainty evidence). Neither study reported data on adverse effects.Evidence from this review

2020 Cochrane

345. Complementary and alternative therapies for post-caesarean pain. (Abstract)

the quality of evidence is very low. Aromatherapy Aromatherapy plus analgesia may reduce pain when compared with placebo plus analgesia at 12 hours (mean difference (MD) -2.63 visual analogue scale (VAS), 95% CI -3.48 to -1.77; 3 studies; 360 women; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (MD -3.38 VAS, 95% CI -3.85 to -2.91; 1 study; 200 women; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain if aromatherapy plus analgesia has any effect on adverse effects (anxiety) compared with placebo plus analgesia (...) . Electromagnetic therapy Electromagnetic therapy may reduce pain compared with placebo plus analgesia at 12 hours (MD -8.00, 95% CI -11.65 to -4.35; 1 study; 72 women; low-certainty evidence) and 24 hours (MD -13.00 VAS, 95% CI -17.13 to -8.87; 1 study; 72 women; low-certainty evidence). Massage We identified six studies (651 women), five of which were quasi-RCTs, comparing massage (foot and hand) plus analgesia versus analgesia. All the evidence relating to pain, adverse effects (anxiety), vital signs

2020 Cochrane

346. An overview of systematic reviews on mental health promotion, prevention, and treatment of common mental disorders for refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced persons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for the search strategy or inclusion criteria of the reviews to state that studies involving refugees were eligible for inclusion (23/23), than for asylum seekers (14/23) or IDPs (7/23) to be explicitly mentioned. In most reviews, study eligiblity was either not restricted by participant age (9/23), or restricted to adults (10/23). Reviews commonly reported on studies of diagnosis or symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder or trauma (11/23) and were less likely to report on depression or anxiety (6/23 (...) attention for depression and anxiety disorders. Better quality systematic reviews and better report of review design and methods would help those who may use these reviews to inform implementation of mental health interventions.Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Cochrane Collaboration.

2020 Cochrane

347. Psychological and social interventions for the prevention of mental disorders in people living in low- and middle-income countries affected by humanitarian crises. (Abstract)

difference (SMD) -0.16, 95% CI -0.50 to 0.18; 3 studies, 590 participants; very low quality evidence), depressive symptoms (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -0.29 to 0.31; 4 RCTs, 746 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.31; 3 studies, 632 participants; very low quality evidence) at study endpoint. In adults' secondary outcomes of prevention interventions, psychological counselling may be effective for reducing depressive symptoms (MD -7.50, 95% CI -9.19 to -5.81; 1 (...) study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) and anxiety symptoms (MD -6.10, 95% CI -7.57 to -4.63; 1 study, 258 participants; very low quality evidence) at endpoint. No data were available for PTSD symptoms in the adult population. Owing to the small number of RCTs included in the present review, it was not possible to carry out neither sensitivity nor subgroup analyses.Of the seven prevention studies included in this review, none assessed whether prevention interventions reduced

2020 Cochrane

348. Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare students. (Abstract)

, usual care, and active or attention control, in adults (18 years and older), who are healthcare students. Primary outcomes were resilience, anxiety, depression, stress or stress perception, and well-being or quality of life. Secondary outcomes were resilience factors.Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, assessed risks of bias, and rated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach (at post-test only).We included 30 RCTs, of which 24 were set in high-income (...) that, compared to controls, healthcare students receiving resilience training may report higher levels of resilience (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.78; 9 studies, 561 participants), lower levels of anxiety (SMD -0.45, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.06; 7 studies, 362 participants), and lower levels of stress or stress perception (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.09; 7 studies, 420 participants). Effect sizes varied between small and moderate. There was little or no evidence

2020 Cochrane

349. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of hospital-based specialist palliative care for adults with advanced illness and their caregivers. (Abstract)

, and are person-centred outcomes important to many patients and families. More well conducted studies are needed to study populations with non-malignant diseases and mixed diagnoses, ward-based models of HSPC, 24 hours access (out-of-hours care) as part of HSPC, pain, achieving patient preferred place of care, patient satisfaction with care, caregiver outcomes (satisfaction with care, burden, depression, anxiety, grief, quality of life), and cost-effectiveness of HSPC. In addition, research is needed

2020 Cochrane

350. Avatar Therapy for people with schizophrenia or related disorders. (Abstract)

in the short term (risk difference (RD) 0.00, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.20; studies = 1, participants = 19; low-certainty evidence). Numbers leaving the study early from each group were not clearly different - although more did leave from the Avatar Therapy group (6/14 versus 0/12; RR 11.27, 95% CI 0.70 to 181.41; studies = 1, participants = 26; low-certainty evidence). There was no clear difference in anxiety between treatment groups (RR 5.54, 95% CI 0.34 to 89.80; studies = 1, participants = 19; low-certainty

2020 Cochrane

351. Telephone interventions for symptom management in adults with cancer. (Abstract)

of tumour type, stage of cancer, type of treatment, and time of recruitment (e.g. before, during, or after treatment).We used Cochrane methods for trial selection, data extraction and analysis. When possible, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, emotional distress, pain, uncertainty, sexually-related and lung cancer symptoms as well as secondary outcomes are reported as standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and we presented a descriptive synthesis of study findings (...) -two studies were eligible for inclusion; most had moderate risk of bias,often related to blinding. Collectively, researchers recruited 6250 people and studied interventions in people with a variety of cancer types and across the disease trajectory, although many participants had breast cancer or early-stage cancer and/or were starting treatment. Studies measured symptoms of anxiety, depression, emotional distress, uncertainty, fatigue, and pain, as well as sexually-related symptoms and general

2020 Cochrane

352. Psychological therapies for women who experience intimate partner violence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for women in the context of IPV and whether they cause harm.To assess the effectiveness of psychological therapies for women who experience IPV on the primary outcomes of depression, self-efficacy and an indicator of harm (dropouts) at six- to 12-months' follow-up, and on secondary outcomes of other mental health symptoms, anxiety, quality of life, re-exposure to IPV, safety planning and behaviours, use of healthcare and IPV services, and social support.We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders (...) of women who dropped out from the experimental or comparator intervention groups, an indicator of no harm (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.44; five trials with medium-term follow-up data, 840 women; low-certainty evidence). Although no trials reported adverse events from psychological therapies or participation in the trial, only one trial measured harm outcomes using a validated scale. For secondary outcomes, trials measured anxiety only at short-term follow-up, showing that psychological therapies may

2020 Cochrane

353. Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus. (Abstract)

on disease-specific quality of life and serious adverse effects. Our secondary outcomes were: depression, anxiety, general health-related quality of life, negatively biased interpretations of tinnitus and other adverse effects. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome.We included 28 studies (mostly from Europe) with a total of 2733 participants. All participants had had tinnitus for at least three months and their average age ranged from 43 to 70 years. The duration of the CBT (...) communication about serious adverse effects. CBT probably results in little or no difference in adverse effects: six studies reported none and in one study one participant in the CBT condition worsened (risk ratio (RR) 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.87). For the secondary outcomes, CBT may result in a slight reduction in depression (SMD -0.34, 95% CI-0.60 to -0.08; 8 studies; 502 participants; low certainty). However, we are uncertain whether CBT reduces anxiety, improves health-related quality of life or reduces

2020 Cochrane

354. Pharmacological, psychological, and non-invasive brain stimulation interventions for treating depression after stroke. (Abstract)

of Cochrane Stroke and Cochrane Depression Anxiety and Neurosis (last searched August 2018), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1966 to August 2018), Embase (1980 to August 2018), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Alllied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to August 2018), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2018), and Web of Science (2002 to August 2018). We also searched reference lists, clinical trial registers (World Health Organization

2020 Cochrane

355. Treatments for the prevention of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). (Abstract)

devices; safety pillows; nocturnal supervision; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); opiate antagonists; and adenosine antagonists.We aimed to collect data on study design factors and participant demographics for included studies. The primary outcome of interest was the number of deaths from SUDEP. Secondary outcomes included: number of other deaths (unrelated to SUDEP); change in mean depression and anxiety scores (as defined within the study); clinically important change in quality (...) cohort study observed no significant effect of providing patients with SUDEP information on drug compliance and quality of life, anxiety and depression levels. The study was too short and with no deaths observed in either group to determine a protective effect. Two case control studies reported a protective effect for nocturnal supervision against SUDEP. However due to significant heterogeneity, the results could not be combined in meta-analysis. One study of 154 SUDEP cases and 616 controls reported

2020 Cochrane

356. Educational, supportive and behavioural interventions to improve usage of continuous positive airway pressure machines in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea. (Abstract)

), as the certainty of evidence was assessed as very low. We are uncertain if mixed interventions improve device usage, increase the number of participants using their machines ≥ 4 hours/night, reduce study withdrawals, improve quality of life, or reduce anxiety symptoms, as the certainty of evidence for these outcomes was assessed to be very low. Symptom scores via the ESS could not be measured due to considerable heterogeneity between studies.In CPAP-naïve people with OSA, high-certainty evidence indicates (...) that behavioural interventions yield a clinically-significant increase in hourly device usage when compared with usual care. Moderate certainty evidence shows that supportive interventions increase usage modestly. Very low-certainty evidence shows that educational and mixed interventions may modestly increase CPAP usage. The impact of improved CPAP usage on daytime sleepiness, quality of life, and mood and anxiety scores remains unclear since these outcomes were not assessed in the majority of included studies

2020 Cochrane

357. Patient-initiated appointment systems for adults with chronic conditions in secondary care. (Abstract)

conditions: cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. The certainty of the evidence using GRADE ratings was mainly low to very low. The results suggest that patient-initiated clinics may make little or no difference to anxiety (odds ratio (OR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 1.12; 5 studies, 1019 participants; low-certainty evidence) or depression (OR 0.79 95% CI 0.51 to 1.23; 6 studies, 1835 participants; low (...) questions to collect their data at different time points and across different health conditions. Some areas of risk of bias across all the included studies was consistently high (i.e. for blinding of participants and personnel and blinding of outcome assessment, other areas were largely of low risk of bias or were affected by poor reporting making the assessment unclear).Patient-initiated appointment systems may have little or no effect on patient anxiety, depression and quality of life compared

2020 Cochrane

358. Interventions for increasing acceptance of local anaesthetic in children and adolescents having dental treatment. (Abstract)

Interventions for increasing acceptance of local anaesthetic in children and adolescents having dental treatment. Delivery of pain-free dentistry is crucial for reducing fear and anxiety, completion of treatment, and increasing acceptance of future dental treatment in children. Local anaesthetic (LA) facilitates this pain-free approach but it remains challenging. A number of interventions to help children cope with delivery of LA have been described, with no consensus on the best method

2020 Cochrane

359. Ovarian suppression for adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. (Abstract)

reported a higher number of hot flushes in the OFS group than in the no-OFS group. Seven studies involving 5354 women collected information related to mood; however this information was reported as grade 3 or 4 depression, anxiety, or neuropsychiatric symptoms, or symptoms were reported without the grade. Two studies reported an increase in depression, anxiety, and neuropsychiatric symptoms in the OFS group compared to the no-OFS group, and five studies indicated an increase in anxiety in both

2020 Cochrane

360. Psychological interventions for people with hemophilia. (Abstract)

an issue for perceived limitations, expectations and cultural influences on the individual and their family. People with hemophilia can react by denying their condition and its manifestations and not adhering to treatment. Due to the complexity of relationships surrounding genetic diseases, parents and relatives may have their own issues that contribute to making life easier or more difficult for the person with hemophilia. Anxiety, sadness and depression resulting in mental health disorders

2020 Cochrane