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Junctional Rhythm (Treatment)
eMedicine.com, 2014Treatment Medical Care The decision to treat a junctional rhythm depends on the underlying cause and the stability of the patient.
No pharmacologic therapy is needed for asymptomatic, otherwise healthy individuals with junctional rhythms that result from increased vagal tone.
In patients with complete AV block, high-grade AV block, or symptomatic sick sinus syndrome (ie, sinus node dysfunction), a permanent pacemaker may be needed.
The junctional rhythm serves as an escape mechanism to maintain the heart rate during periods of bradycardia or asystole and should not be suppressed.
Emergency department care can include evaluation of the 12-lead ECG findings, airway protection and oxygenation, and blood pressure support, depending on the cause of the rhythm.
If the junctional rhythm is due to digitalis toxicity, then atropine, digoxin immune Fab (Digibind), or both may be necessary.
In refractory cases of symptomatic digitalis toxicity that results in junctional tachycardia and causes severe symptoms, then intravenous phenytoin can be used.
This should be administered in a monitored setting because of possible hypotension or the need for a pacemaker after resolution of the ectopic junctional rhythm.
Surgical Care If junctional rhythm is due to symptomatic sick sinus syndrome, permanent pacemaker implantation is indicated.
If ectopic junctional tachycardia, which usually occurs in the pediatric population, is incessant and symptomatic, then radiofrequency ablation via a percutaneous approach is indicated.
Consultations Symptomatic cases may benefit from a consultation with a cardiologist and/or an electrophysiologist to better define the etiology and approach to prevention.