High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.
Social Science & Medicine, 2012
[Epub ahead of print] High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.
Abstract This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence).
In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events.
At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors.
We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys).
We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence.
A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use.
Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence.
Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use.
They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students.